Monday, September 30, 2019
Although Hamlet and Agamemnon both follow AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s definition of tragedy, I believe Hamlet is a more tragic play. Many more innocent lives were taken in Hamlet than Agamemnon. Hamlet, Gertrude, Ophelia, Polonius and Laertes were all killed due to ClaudiusÃ¢â¬â¢ deceptive and cheating ways. In Agamemnon, Cassandra and Iphigenia were the only innocent lives taken, both caused by AgamemnonÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of morals. The sheer number of deaths in Hamlet that were caused by unjust means and intentions brings a great amount of unrest to the audience. It holds even greater unrest for the audience when compared to Agamemnon. The level of understanding I had with all the characters was far greater in Hamlet than in Agamemnon. Hamlet, the tragic hero in his play, was the main character. The audience was able to connect and sympathize with him through his struggles with avenging his father and his many soliloquies. Touching on the topic of HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s desire for suicide in his soliloquies gives the impression that he is trapped in his life. Even though he may be miserable in the world he lives in, suicide is forbidden by his religion, and thus he is trapped to stay in a world he hates. Agamemnon does not appear in his play until at least half way through. This makes it difficult to justify Agamemnon, the tragic hero in his play, as the main character. His wife, Clytemnestra is the main character since her story is followed from the beginning to the end of the play. Making a connection with the tragic hero in Agamemnon is much more difficult since the audience does not have a chance to connect with him, ultimately making his death less tragic and compelling to the audience. An element of AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s definition of tragedy is involving a tragic hero of higher standing. Both of these plays follow that element. Hamlet is the prince of Denmark. Agamemnon is the king of Argos, Greece. Both of these men make and error in judgement that eventually leads to suffering and their final downfall. Hamlet accidently kills Polonius, believing him to be Claudius. This sets a chain of events in action that leads to the death of not only himself, but many people around him. Agamemnon makes the mistake of trusting his wife upon his return. He walks on the purple silk into his palace, where Clytemnestra kills him. This event feels less tragic since the audience almost believes Agamemnon deserves death for sacrificing his own daughter and taking Cassandra as a concubine.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Socrates is one of the founders of Western philosophy. The dialogues, written by many of his students, such as Plato, represent a unique way of questioning how we should live our lives, and who do we aspire to become. He was a very intelligent man who was very concerned about ethics, being a good Athenian, and doing what is just. In PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Apology the reader experiences all of Socrates characteristics as if they where sitting right there with all the other five hundred men representing the jury. Socrates is trying to persuade the jury by defending himself against accusations made by fellow Athenian, Meletus. He accuses Socrates of corrupting the youth and of not believing in the gods the city of Athens believes in (Apology, 24 b-c).Socrates, not being familiar with courts, attempts at defending himself stating that is most likely to engage in a defense not using the language of lawyers, but in the way he is used to speak to the public. Even though Socrates was found guilty in the court of law, hence being sentenced to death, he still persuaded one of the jury men that was not present that day in to believing he was not guilty. I believe that Socrates defended himself more than well against his accusations, and the lack of evidence presented by his accusers gives more than enough reason that he was indeed not guilty. But there are two things I do not agree with Socrates: One being that he says he is not a wise man, and the other being that if someone does wrong to another person unwillingly, is a good enough reason for the wrongdoer to not have repercussions for his acts.It is Important to see that during the entire defense Socrates is attacking his accusers, mainly Meletus and he shows this right away when he goes through the first accusation of supposedly corrupting the youth. He says that most of the kids that follow him around are kids of very rich parents who just enjoy hearing people being questioned. Socrates states that every time his accusers ar e asked what he does and what is he teaching that corrupts the young, they have no answer for the question, and that most of the men are just angry because he questioned them on their supposed more than human wisdom (Apology, 23c-d).The great Socrates was known for going to every man who said was wise and ridiculing them in front of other spectators, in which he made a lot of enemies. It is very important to state that Socrates has been accused before; actually he has been receiving accusations since he was very young. Socrates says that he has two types of accusers: the earlier ones, and the recent ones, which he says listened to what the older accusers said about him making it easier to create a disliking for him. For me this is a very important point, because it is just another reason to believe that the accusations made are just repressed anger and disliking for a man who does not believe in committing any wrongdoing.Socrates continues his defense attacking Meletus and asking hi m who is allowed to improve and educate the youth, and he answers that everyone including the jurymen, the audience, the members of the council, the assembly, all Athenians except for Socrates himself (Apology, 24e-25a). This leads him to conclude that Meletus, using an analogy of horses and horse breeders, does not really care about the youth, because he believes that only one man in Athens can corrupt the youth while he goes on thinking that every other Athenian is educating and improving them (Apology, 25b-c). Socrates once again questions Meletus evidence.In another excerpt of the Apology, Socrates says how can so many people enjoy being around him and listening him questioning others. He then invites all of the supposedly men he has corrupted to stand up as witnesses, but he only finds all of the people that love him and follow him in the audience (Apology, 33c-34b). As you go through the first defense it just keeps on demonstrating the lack of evidence by the part of the accus ers, who could not even bring a single person to the stand that has been corrupted. This leads us to Socrates second part of the defense. In the affidavit it says that Socrates is charged for not believing in the cities gods, but when Meletus is questioned he says: Ã¢â¬Å"This is what I mean, that you do not believe in gods at allÃ¢â¬ (Apology, 26c).This completely changes is early accusation, and it certainly makes it clear that he is contradicting himself. Socrates continues to question Meletus about believing in spirits. Meletus answers a question that made by Socrates, in which he asked, Ã¢â¬Å"Do we not believe spirits to be either gods or the children of godsÃ¢â¬ , Meletus answers Ã¢â¬Å"Of courseÃ¢â¬ (Apology, 27c-d). This leads me to my second point; does Socrates really believe in any supernatural being? I believe that he actually does.One small observation I made was that he mentions the god Zeus more than once during the trial (Apology, 17c, 25c, 35d). But more imp ortantly he talks about A* god who has put him in earth to do the work he does, to be a philosopher, to question what others do not dare. He states that they are treating a gift from god unjustly (Apology 30e-31b). He really persuaded me when he talked about a Ã¢â¬Å"divine or spiritual signÃ¢â¬ that speaks to him when he needs to be turned away from something (Apology, 31d).Some jurymen would say he is just talking about this to get away with not being sentenced to death, but I say to those people why would a man who clearly says he does not fear death will lie in the court of law, which he has respected his entire life, because that is how he was brought up. But even if I agree with Socrates defense, there are two things I do not agree with. The first is that he says he is not a wise man, which I find to be completely absurd. In a sense I see it as his way for people taking him for a humble man.Early in the trial he expresses how he visited all the men who said they were wise, but he never says he questioned who said they were not wise. For Socrates being wise is someone who has knowledge and the more arrogant you are about knowing something the less of a wise man you are. To make my point Socrates never thinks of himself as a wise man, so by using his own explanation of a wise person makes him a wise man if not the wisest in Athens. (Santi remember that he believed that you truly do not understand anything until you understand yourself and your own beliefs. Socrates at least knows this truth about himself.)The second argument I do not agree with Socrates that if someone does something wrong unwillingly is exempt from being accused or even punished from his acts. I do believe in doing what is just, and I do believe Socrates was prosecuted unjustly. But just because you do wrong unwillingly does not give the state to let you go freely. Take this for example you are in a bar and you are carrying a weapon with you, for precaution measures. The gun accidental ly goes of and you injure a person. This would go under unwillingly causing harm to another person, but it does not mean that you should not receive any punishment for acting carelessly while carrying a fire weapon. I arrived at the conclusion that Socrates was never to be punished in any sort of way.The main reason is because the accusations were vague and were not backed up by any type of evidence. These accusers were blinded by a hatred that was born when they were young andÃ continued to build up when they see the man named Socrates walking through the streets of Athens questioning everything. The city of Athens and the people who lived there were taught everything they know and believe, and those things were never to be questioned because that is what they were taught. Then came Socrates, a wise man, and questioned everything, but I do not believe he ever intended, and surely did not, to corrupt the youth. I strongly believe that he was helping every single human being he spo ke to.Socrates was teaching the people of Athens to question things, to be curious and question everything, and that is the basis of philosophy: to question. One could say that Socrates prophecy was fulfilled his conviction will be shameful for Athens because there will be others to take his place. By reading the Apology I felt a one more jurymen, and I definitely found this man to not be guilty on any of the charges.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Communication is an essential part of every workplace, including a healthcare facility (Fry, 1994). This method of expressing an idea to another person influences the success of healthcare delivery and thus it is important for healthcare personnel to understand the different forms of communication (Hewitt, 1981a, 1981b). It is thus important to understand that there are two forms of communication. Verbal communication. This form of communication is what individuals generally rely on for conveying a message to another individual. This mode of expression uses words which may be spoken or written in order for another individual to receive. The message carried out through verbal communication is easy to understand and are actually straightforward. In the field of healthcare, it is a common occurrence that medical jargon is employed between healthcare personnel and thus this form of communication is still considered verbal. On the other hand, simpler words are often used when dealing with patients in the hospital (Krmidam, 1989). These simple words are chosen to be used with patients because these are quickly understood by the patients and thus caring for them will be easier if they understand what is being explained to them (Murphy, 1982; Gordon et al. , 2009; Haskard et al. , 2009). It is also important to know that verbal communication can also be quite complex when one individual speaks with abstract words, mostly because they chose to do so. The vocabularies may sound highly articulate yet these words can have the same meaning when used with simple words. The choice of words by an individual is also influenced by his age, educational attainment and maturity, wherein younger individuals tend to employ simple words while those more mature individuals use more difficult words when they communicate with other people. It should be understood that instead of being confused by the words of a speaker, it is more important to understand what he is trying to convey. Non-verbal communication. This form of communication does not involve the use of words but are actually conveyed through voluntary or involuntary signals that may come from one individual and is perceived or received by another person. The most common example of non-verbal communication is body language, which pertains to the actions and movements that an individual shows while speaking or not speaking at all. This is also considered as a form of one-way communication because certain messages are transmitted to another person through gestures, facial expressions and other physical attributes (Rask et al. , 2008). Examples of non-verbal communication include facial expressions such as smiling, smirking and glaring (Wujcik, 2004). These facial expressions can impart either a positive or negative message towards a patient and most of the time, the individual showing this non-verbal form of communication is not aware that he is doing this. The manner of dressing also imparts a message to another person. Thus, a person wearing a suit conveys a message of honor, while a person wearing simple overall imparts a message that he is a worker. Hair also symbolizes certain messages, including how the hair is arranged and the color. A well-kept hairdo will thus convey that an individual is in control of himself, while dishevel hair may mean that the individual is under stress and possibly leads a confusing and difficult life. There are also other non-verbal messages that are imparted by jewelry. A wedding ring extends the message that an individual is married, while a person wearing a watch may mean that he is aware that time is precious. Cosmetics can also convey a message, wherein its overt use is strongly associated with prostitutes, while simple women wear minimal cosmetics or none at all. Both verbal and non-verbal forms of communication influence an interaction between individuals (LeFebvre, 2008). It is thus important to be able to identify and to distinguish these forms, in order to fully understand an individual and ultimately result in a productive relationship. References Fry, A. (1994). Effective communication with people with visual disabilities. Nursing Times, 90, 42-43. Gordon, C. , Ellis-Hill, C. and Ashburn, A. (2009). The use of conversational analysis: Nurse-patient interaction in communication disability after stroke. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 65, 544-553. Haskard, K. B. , DiMatteo, M. R. , Heritage, J. (2009). Affective and instrumental communication in primary care interactions: Predicting the satisfaction of nursing staff and patients. Health Communications, 24, 21-32. Hewitt, F. S. (1981a). The nurse and the patient: Communication skills. Introduction to communication. Nursing Times, 77, 1-4. Hewitt, F. S. (1981b). The nurse and the patient. Communication skills. Non-verbal communication. Nursing Times, 77, 9-12. Krmidam, M. O. (1989). Communication with patients. Kenya Nursing Journal, 17, 11. LeFebvre, K. B. (2008). Strengthen your verbal and nonverbal communication. ONS Connections, 23, 21. Murphy, D. C. (1982). Communication: The key to improved patient understanding. NITA, 5, 370-372. Rask, M. , Brunt, D. and Fridlund, B. (2008). Validation of the verbal and social interaction questionnaire: NursesÃ¢â¬â¢ focus in the nurse-patient relationship in forensic nursing care. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 15, 710-716. Wujcik, D. (2004). Do our nonverbal messages inhibit patient care? ONS News, 19, 2.
Friday, September 27, 2019
The Medium And Its Impact On The Society Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words
The Medium And Its Impact On The Society - Essay Example There are a lot of serious defenders and critics of McLuhanÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas, and, in my opinion, all of them are right to a greater or lesser extent, although, after my reading of McLuhanÃ¢â¬â¢s works and of some discussions around it, I should confess that I could agree with his aphorism: Ã¢â¬Å"The Medium Is the MessageÃ¢â¬ . In this essay, I give several points to explain my opinion. First of all, I would not adjoin those people who understand the meaning of the McLuhanÃ¢â¬â¢s work too literally, focusing mostly on the conventional significance of term Ã¢â¬Å"mediumÃ¢â¬ in relation to mass-media communications and the meaning of Ã¢â¬Å"messageÃ¢â¬ only as information. Such understanding, in my opinion, leads to misapprehension or, at least, to a superficial comprehension of McLuhanÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas Ã¢â¬â it does not allow to go beyond simple conclusions that communication technologies are more important (in some miraculous way) than information or content, which technologies transmit, and hence information can be disregarded. In this sense I agree with McLuhan who expresses his harsh opinion as follows: I consider, that according to McLuhan, the Ã¢â¬Å"mediaÃ¢â¬ should be understood in more broad, complex meaning Ã¢â¬â as Ã¢â¬Å"extension of manÃ¢â¬ , as any phenomenon (social or technological) that can cause structural changes influencing manÃ¢â¬â¢s mode of existence. Fishman (2006) also emphasizes that McLuhan treats media as Ã¢â¬Å"extensions of an individuals capabilities and attributes Ã¢â¬ ¦ [and] extension of the mind. These media create perceptual environments, and these environments influence what kind of facts are privileged as important, and what type of stimuli are ignored or overlookedÃ¢â¬ (p.2). McLuhan (2003) corroborates it: All human inventions, innovations, and ideas are media, according to McLuhan.
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Good Deed Report (Part 1) + Professor Memo (Incident Report - Part 2) - Assignment Example Immediately after college, I landed a part-time job in a fast food restaurant in the city before receiving my college results. After working for a few months, I received a notification that I had qualified to pursue a degree course at the University. When admissions were close, I was preoccupied with registration and admission procedures and seldom found time to attend work. In the last week of administration, I had many follow-up activities related to my university admission and did not find time to go to work. However, Allan multitasked and served customers at the counter and food service unit. I was new at work, and it was difficult finding an employee at the restaurant to cover for me. My colleagues in the food service unit were often overwhelmed in the afternoons after working throughout the morning. Therefore, my absence was unwelcome unless I had someone to replace me at the unit to avoid overworking my colleagues. Allan was the most unlikely colleague since he was working in the accounting department, but the only employee left. It was amazing when he agreed to my request after thoroughly explaining why I would be away. The fast food restaurant was small compared to other restaurants in the city. However, the increasing number of colleges surrounding the restaurant was a potential market for expansion and growth, especially during the fall. Many factors made Allan succeed in performing both duties and tasks. Firstly, I recognized Allan has exceptional customer relations skills. It is apparent many customers arriving in the evening had delayed service because he had to juggle between receiving money from customers and serving them food. Secondly, Allan is a team player. He has never worked in the food service unit, thus, not familiar with many employees there. However, he managed to get along with the employees to offer a lasting experience to customers. Finally, I was surprised by
Pediatric radiography discussion Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1
Pediatric radiography discussion - Case Study Example Other destructors such as TV, video games, or movies on tablets or phones can also be used to help the child remain destructed for a while. This is the simplest and least expensive immobilizing method since it uses equipment found in most departments. Devices used include tapes, sheets or towels, compression bands, sand bags, covered radiolucent sponge blocks, stockinettes and ace bandages. After each procedure, it is required that the item is either disposed or be cleaned with bleach if coated with vinyl. The tapes should be twisted so that the adhesive surface is not against the skin. Gauze pads can also be placed between the skin and the adhesive tape. For small infants and young children, a 4 inch ace bandage can be used effectively. On the other hand, 6 inch ace bandages work well for older children and they are best used to immobilize legs. They look like midevil torture devices and they are rarely used since parents do not like to see their children put in them. The method uses the Pedia-poser chair that provides fast, gentle and secure immobilization of infants through 4 years old. In this device, the patient is secured only once and the chair rotates to quickly position for different views. It is simple and reliable, therefore, child friendly for pediatric positioning. One is able to adjust the chair back to the height of the child. Non-stretchy Velcro straps can be used by the stronger toddlers to secure their arms in different views. This is a faster, easier and commonly used method where the parent is used to position the child or hold the child in position. This works best for extremity exams like an elbow. The devices used in this method include gloves and aprons worn by the parents in case their anatomy slips in the exposure. During pediatric radiography, proper immobilization and high mA, short exposure time techniques are used and applied to reduce the motion unsharpness. Also, accurate
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Rewrite the to meet the english academic standards - Essay Example This method provides social workers with the opportunity to focus on the individual needs, in order to bring about changes to the service user situations. The effectiveness of the task centered approach is clearly identified from the great outcomes at the end of the intervention. There is an element which is usually important to recognize when using the task centered approach; that is, when service users are facing problems they have also the means to solve them. The social worker in partnership with the service users will come across solutions to the problem in question. This approach provides social workers with a duty to empower service users while using it. (Coulshed & Orme, 2006). Moving on to the task centered principles, mutual clarity between worker and service user about the purpose of their interactions is required. This is achieved when good communication is maintained between them. This model is very practical as it allows the service user to make smaller and meaningful changes. This model is limited as it can not deal with more than three issues in order to ensure effectiveness of the intervention. It requires work in partnership and maximum collaboration from the service user. The intervention should be measured to ensure its effectiveness. The social worker and service user should evaluate the outcomes to ensure positive results (Healy, 2005) When applying the task centered model with a clear aim to succeed in the intervention with service users, five sequential phases it should be observed; both the social worker and service user should be absolutely clear of the process of the intervention. Clear explanations must be provided by the social worker, including the time limited process. In addition, the social worker should explore the service userÃ¢â¬â¢s situation to find out why the problems have occurred, and identify the relevant issues needed to be addressed. Moving on to the second phase of the intervention, once all the
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Identify the key reasons for privatisation of public utilities or institutions and discuss the likely effects in Australia - Essay Example o gradually privatise a large number of its public utilities particularly within the three sectors known as the: (1) financial services; (2) electricity and gas; and (3) transport and communication (Reserve Bank of Australia Bulletin, 1997, p. 7). Basically, there is absolutely nothing wrong with privatising public enterprises especially when there is a strong need for the government to come up with large amount of money to finance the development of public infrastructure or given that the government is no longer capable of properly managing a business enterprise. However, it is also possible for the entire society to experience economic and social problems given that the selling of public utility to the hands of the private sector heavily involves infrastructure (Strachan, 1998). To enable the readers to have a better understanding why the Australian Government heavily relied on privatisation back in the 1990s, the key reasons behind the privatisation of public utilities in Australia will be thoroughly discussed. In the process of going through the main discussion, the possible consequences or effects of implementing the privatisation of public utilities in Australia will be tackled followed by demonstrating real-life examples to support the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s point-of-view. As part of the conclusion, whether or not the key reasons behind the privatisation of public utilities in Australia can be considered as a good political strategy in terms of being able to provide the general public with affordable and good quality services will be justified. For many years, Australians had become very dependent on the Australian government when it comes to the delivery of good quality public services. As part of considering the social welfare of the general public, the government had to spend a large sum of money to improve the public utility services without overcharging the people with the quality services they receive. Partly because of globalization and the limited amount of
Monday, September 23, 2019
Juxtaposition - Movie Review Example The director of the film employed juxtaposing to emphasis on some themes that are presented in the film. For instance, we are aware that the colonizers interest in the island is due to their search for treasure such as gold. However, the film does present an unusual treasure in the form of a beautiful land and the people who we know as savage turn out to be social beings (Buescher and Ono 128). The ensuing theme of romance is captured well with a princess in the picture, and although Smith may not be a prince, he is a handsome guy fit to be a prince in the eyes of Pocahontas (133). Pocahontas, the protagonist in the movie, is a beautiful princess who is to be wedded off to a man she does not love. Already the movie presents the idea of a damsel in distress hoping for a rescue from a knight. The victory of love is supported by the possibility of a romance growing between the Smith a foreigner and Pocahontas. In winning the heart of Pocahontas, we have a contrasting image of the usual malevolent colonialism presented by john smith. According to Buescher and Ono, the colonial image presented by Smith is of a benevolent nature illustrated in the film through his accommodation feminism, environmentalism and multiculturalism. This nature of Smith juxtaposed with the nature of Governor Ratcliffe makes Smith a prince charming (135). Pocahontas represents a woman who dreams of an exciting life other than the provincial life. This representation of Pocahontas is juxtaposed with Smiths heroic figure; his colonizing experience makes him the perfect rescuer for Pocahontas. The director of the movie juxtaposes nature and Pocahontas in emphasising on the relationship between nature and women. However, we are aware of the beliefs the Indians have on powers present in nature. In this case, Pocahontas utilised the power of the wind eagle and other natural spirits to save smith from
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Separation of Commercial Banks and Investment Banks Essay One of the key concerns growing out of the debate on whether to separate or merge retail banking and wholesale/investment banking activities has been the stability of a nationÃ¢â¬â¢s banking system. The experience of the US banking system has suggested that merge of commercial and investment banks is a better approach to achieving stability. After the global financial crisis, the American economy went into recession. The policy priority of American government was then to intervene into its banking system so as to mitigate the impact of the crisis. One advantage of the merger of banks is that it can improve the overall condition of the economy (Khan, 2012). The merger of banks unites small and weak unit banks which will then be able to provide diverse services and with time, to reduce costs and gain competitiveness and efficiency. As will be argued below, contrary to the view that the merge of banks was responsible for the financial crisis in 2008 and Great Depression in 1930s, universal banks constitute one of the key solutions to the underlying cause of the financial turmoil in history. First of all, in 1930s, the Great Depression in America triggered considerable debates on the primary cause of the stock market crash. Analysts in favour of separation of banks have observed that the fundamental reason was the Ã¢â¬Å"overproduction of securitiesÃ¢â¬ resulted from the combination of commercial and investment banks (Casserley, Harle, and Macdonald, 2011). Until 1902s, national banks had no authority to issue securities. However, Ã¢â¬Å"the Civil War had been an explosion of new securities issued to finance railroads leading to the western Unit States and the expansion in public fieldsÃ¢â¬ (Hendrickson, 2012). Many state-chartered banks captured this chance and were involved in securities underwriting. Historical data has shown that compared to a number of merely 205 banks engaging in securities underwriting in 1922, there were approximately 5 times more national banks that were involved in securities underwriting in 1926 (Hendrickson, 2012). This sharp increase in securities underwriting resulted in deterioration of the quality of new securities and the Ã¢â¬Å"overproduction of securitiesÃ¢â¬ . To the contrary, others have opposed the separation of banks, arguing that the Great Depression actually had much to do with small local Ã¢â¬Å"unitÃ¢â¬ banks which constituted the fatal weakness in the banking system (Casserley, Harle, and Macdonald, 2011). This argument, therefore, suggests that the cause of the Great Depression was not the merger of commercial and investment banks but the separation of banks. Accordingly, they have pointed out that the increasing number of small banks as a result of the separation of banks could exacerbate the vulnerability of the financial system (Casserley, Harle, and Macdonald, 2011). The enactment of the Glass-Steagall Act in 1930s seems to provide an indication that the views in support of the separation of banks had prevailed over those in favour of the merger of banks. However, it is submitted that the Glass-Steagall Act had failed to solve the underlying problem of the US financial system. For instance, in 1980s, despite the operation of the Act, a third of small specialist financial institutions failed during the saving and loan (SL) crisis (Casserley, Harle, and Macdonald, 2011). This indicates that the statutory requirement of bank separation is not the right solution to the underlying problems in the US financial system. Secondly, the merger of banks has the advantage of helping small banks to become more competitive in the market because merged banks are able to provide broader and cheaper services than small specialist financial institutions, and consequently, to achieve reduction of operating costs and increase in revenue (Krainer, 2000). However, proponents of the Glass-Steagall Act have maintained that the merger of banks could generate two critical problems Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"conflict of interestsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"too big to failÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â which, in their view, were responsible for the Great Depression in 1930s and the financial crisis in 2007 (Casserley, Harle, and Macdonald, 2011). In our opinion, the fact that the Glass-Steagall Act was repealed in 1980 indicates that the need for statutory permission of the merger of banks in the US had prevailed over concerns about the problems associated with the merger of banks. This further suggests that since the Glass-Steagall Act had failed to address the underlying cause of the Great Depression which was the fragility of small financial institutions, the repeal of the Act and permission of bank merger seemed to have been considered to be the way toward the establishment of a healthy and strong financial system in the US. Therefore, despite these problems that might arise from the merger of banks, the permission of bank merger has been regarded as a better approach to achieving financial system stability than the statutory requirement of eparation of banks. Thirdly, another argument for separation concerns the moral hazard issue that may arise from universal banks. According to this argument, the merger of banks may be likely to create incentives for banks to make irresponsible investment decisions at the risk of depositors and investors due to the expectation of universal banks that governments will protect them from failure (Casserley, Harle, and Macdonald, 2011). However, it can be argued that this issue is not attributable to government policies on bank merger or bank separation but to those which bail out banks at the verge of bankruptcy. In other words, such a moral hazard issue may arise not only in the case of bank merger but also in the case of bank separation as long as governments choose to compensate banks for their damages resulted from irresponsible investment decisions. Therefore, the key to solving this moral hazard issue is not to turn a policy in favor of bank merger into a policy in favor of bank separation; rather, it is for the governments to cease to provide bail-out for irresponsible banks so as to prevent them from making investment decisions that are harmful to the entire financial system. Indeed, the merger of banks may give rise to problems. However, it is suggested that these problems can be tackled by stricter government policies. For instance, the excessive involvement of banks in the production of securities may give rise to conflict of interests, an issue concerning the possibility of banks selling securities to customers without disclosing their own interest in such transactions (Casserley, Harle, and Macdonald, 2011). This potential problem can be avoided by government regulations such as the Securities Act 1933 which provided for rules of disclosure on securities offerings and established the Securities Exchange Commission to enforce them (Casserley, Harle, and Macdonald, 2011). Moreover, the moral hazard issue may also be addressed by government regulations of the financial market such as by requirements that banks must retain sufficient capital on account to compensate for losses and liabilities. The examples above demonstrate that government interventions in the banking system may effectively solve these anticipated problems of bank merger. In short, compared to bank separation, bank merger provides a better approach to fostering a stable and healthy financial system which is essential for the economic recovery of the US (Casserley, Harle, and Macdonald, 2011). Although the merger of banks has its own disadvantages, these disadvantages are not the root causes of the 1930 financial crisis and can be remedied by stricter government regulations. Therefore, it is suggested that while universal banks should be duly regulated, they are more capable to withstand financial turmoil than small banks, thereby making the merge of banks a better government policy than the separation of banks.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Leadership Operations Management of Audi Organisation: Audi AG, Head Quarters: Ingolstadt, Germany, Chairman of the Board of Management: Prof Rupert Stradler (Audi, 2016) This report has been conducted for and requested by the Directors Senior Management Personnel of Audi AG, to investigate the different approaches/practices towards Operations Management, the overall performance of the organisation. Key emphasis has been placed upon understanding the value of Operations Management within the organisational context at Audi AG; and how effective operational efficiencies can aid businesses to successfully achieve business objectives. The application of different theories and models of approach/practice towards contrasting situations within the Audi AG working environment has been explored; for the resulting information/evidence to be contextually comprehensive. Methodology The information contained within this Briefing Paper has been obtained primarily through secondary research techniques including web-based research, academic journal reading and published books and articles. The reasons behind this, are that it is particularly problematic gaining primary research information from Board Level Directors Senior Managers due to time constraints, thus much of the information is obtained through organisational publications. However, primary research was utilised on occasions where greater depth was needed or the required information was not obtainable through other methods. Results 2.1Ã Audi AG Organisational Structure Audi AG (Audi) was historically established in 1910 by founder August Horch in Zwickau (Central-Eastern Germany). Audi AG operates and distributes cars worldwide, manufacturing cars in 11 Production Facilities across 9 countries in Europe, Asia, North America and South America. Audi AG Group currently employees 84,435 members of staff (November 2016) with a revenue of 58.42 Billion EUR (Full year ended 31 March 2016) Chairman of the Board of Management is Prof Rupert Stradler (Audi, 2016). Audi AG is categorised as a large multinational organisation and is a constituent of the Frankfurt Stock Exchange with a current share price as of COP (close of play) on 8th December 2016 at Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬604.62 EUR (Frankfurt Stock Exchange, 2016). Audi AG has many subsidiary companies including Lamborghini, Italdesign Giugiaro, Audi Brussels and Audi Hungaria Motor Kft; with also an overriding parent organisation of Volkswagen Group sitting above Audi AG in hierarchy. (Audi, 2016) 2.1.1 Organisational Management Structure Audi AG is a vast organisation with a Management Matrix/Structure that consists of many layers across various business functions and geographical prominence. The corporate management of Audi AG draws on its expertise and leadership to promote the interests of more than 80,000 employees, the Audi shareholders and the Audi customers around the globe. The managers of Audi AG form the basis for responsible corporate management. (Audi, 2016) Prof Rupert Stradler (Chairman of the Board of Management) is at the summit of the Board of Management and is responsible for the forward planning of the organisation, coupled with the performance of his appointed Board of Management. Beneath the Chairman, the Board of Management consists of Board Members responsible for the performance of specific business functions within the organisation globally; these include: Procurement, Human Resources Organisation, Finance IT, Sales Marketing and Production Logistics. The full list of Audi AG Board Member s is shown in Appendix A. Beneath the Board of Management, Audi AG is dissected depending on Geographical Area within each discipline. For example, European Sales Marketing Director North American Production Logistics Director; these individuals will report up to the relevant Board Member. The regions are once again split up depending on individual plants/locations and the Management Structure continues this trend throughout the organisation. See [Figure 1] Audi AG Company Organogram for further clarification of the Organisational/Management Structure within the organisation. (Audi, 2016) 2.1.2Audi AG Organisational Organogram [Figure 1] (P3, M2, D1) Author: Jacob Hood. Ref: (Audi AG, 2016) Organogram Key: Functional Relationship. Different Departmental Individuals/Functions that work very closely a together to achieve Organisational Objectives. Line Relationship. Organogram structural links indicating hierarchal structure and a subordinates/superiors across departments. Functional Relationship. Symbol to indicate the whole department works loosely albeit of lesser importance as with all other business functions. Indicated with a symbol to maintain clarity of [Figure 1]. Lateral Relationship. Different Departmental Individuals/Functions of the same Hierarchal Position that a work very closely together to achieve Organisational Objectives. 2.1.2 Overview of Operations Management Within Audi AG To gauge an understanding of the Key Operational Functions within Audi AG; an explanation of Operations Management in a broader sense and how the Business Function operates within organisations is critical. Joseph Martinich devised definitions in relation to Operations Management, Operations management is a discipline and profession that studies (and practices) the process of planning, designing and operating production systems and subsystems to achieve the goals of the organisation. (Martinich, 1997) It is responsible for all the processes associated with the design, planning, control, and production of the products/services that the organisation offers. Operations Management forms the fundamental groundwork of the production of products within organisations; and an efficient Operations Management Function leads to increased profitability, productivity and a more streamlined product build process. Within Audi AG, the key operations of the organisation involve the production of their various car models across the globe. These vehicles have numerous variations and are broadly bespoke based upon the customers desired specifications at the point of order. Some of these include: Different Body Shapes, Chassis, Engine Sizes, Left/Right Hand Drive, Transmission, Interior Specifications, Leather Seats, Carbon Fibre Trims etc. (Audi AG, 2016) These variations field complications to the Operations Management Team due to the fluctuating build times between variation of Model/Specification and requires careful scheduling and planning alongside the engineering and manufacturing processes in place to deliver the finished output/product. 2.1.3 Key Operations/Operations Functions Within Audi AG The Operations Management Function, which is known as the Production Logistics Procurement Functions within Audi AG are responsible for the design, control and delivery of Audi AGs Key Operations (Production of Audi Vehicles). The Board of Management Member for the Production Logistics Function is Dr.-Ing. Hubert Waltl and Procurement Board of Management Member is Dr Bernd Martens. (Audi AG, 2016) The inter-relationship between these two functions is crucial to the success of the Operational Processes at Audi AG especially within the Logistics Inventory Management Aspect of the Manufacturing Process. The Key Operational Functions and how Audi AG dissects these functions into Departments within Audi AG is indicated below. The assumptions below are taken from the Neckarsulm, Mid-South Germany Plant, where the production of Audi A4, A5, A7, A8, R8, RS6 and all the individual variations of such vehicles within the Neckarsulm Production Plant. (Audi AG, 2016) Scheduling. The Operation Function of Scheduling is responsible for the design and allocation of resources and setting up the timetable of when the product/service will be completed, following a customer order. (Management Study, 2017) Within the Organisational Context at Audi AG, they name this departmental function Production Control Planning. (Audi AG, 2016) They utilise sophisticated computerised systems to ascertain the duration of time that it takes to fully manufacture the product dependent on current Queue Time, Model Bespoke Specifications etc. This is then relayed to the Customer to give them an indication of the anticipated delivery time of their Audi Vehicle. A key aspect of Scheduling is devising the algorithms and the systems based upon their research of previous Build Time of vehicles to create accurate schedules for various models and variations of those models. Scheduling is also responsible for maximising the efficiency of the Production Line, Streamlining Process es and Eradicating Bottlenecks. For Example, within Audi AG the body and chassis of an Audi A4 takes sufficiently longer than the interior. Therefore, a key improvement to mitigate this issue could be to build in a buffer of excess Audi A4 bodies being manufactured in the night shift. This will then sufficiently mitigate the issue that the Interior aspects of the Manufacturing Process take less time to complete than the Exterior Production. Thus, maximising the number of vehicles that can be manufactured within a given time period. Capacity Management. Capacity Management is concerned with the matching of the capacity of the operating system and the demand placed upon that system. (Wild, 2002) Capacity Management within Audi AG is part of the Production Control Planning Departmental Function with the core objectives being to manage the current level of resources available in relation to the demand placed upon those processes; to deliver efficient and effective mechanisms that successfully meet Business Objectives. Capacity Management must be able to accurately draw upon historical and forecasted data to ascertain whether the current structure and configuration of Human/Non-Human Resources can sufficiently deal with current and prospective consumer demand. (Management Study, 2017) For example within Audi AG, they must be acutely aware of the Micro/Macro Environmental Factors, Sales Forecasts and balance these with a detailed analysis of the Production/Manufacturing Systems and make informed decisions as to whet her internal operational adjustments are required. One of Audi AGs Business Objectives is to work to ensure that the consumer doesnt have to wait extensive quantities of time to receive their new Audi Vehicle. Short-Term Demand can be dealt with by increasing the forecasted build time from 6 weeks to 8 weeks. However, if there is a prolonged increased demand for a model of Audi Vehicle, whereby Customers must wait over 8 weeks for their new vehicle; it may be necessary to increase the amount of resources available to manufacture more units of that model (More Labour, Machines Etc.), to successfully meet business objectives. It is the role of Capacity Management to monitor the current trends in relation to the processes and make pragmatic strategic decisions based upon this data. Transformation Process. The Transformation Process is the Operational Function that addresses the process of taking Inputs which include Transforming Resources (Staff, Machinery) and Transformable Resources (Raw Materials) and turns these resources/materials into finished Outputs that are ready to distribute to the consumer. (Pearson, 2016, p.567) See Appendix A for the Transformation Process Model in a visual format. Within the Situational Context at Audi AG, the Transforming Resources include: Production Line Workforce, Machinery and Individual Plants. The Transformable Resources include: Raw Materials such as Vehicle Body/Chassis, Engines, Leather Interior, Electronic Chips etc. The Output is the finished Audi Model Vehicle that is distributed to the customer, For Example Audi TT. The Transforming Resources assist to construct/transform the Transformable Resources into the final output product. (Pearson, 2016, p.567) At Audi AG, there are a couple of functions responsible for impl ementing the Transformation Process efficiently and effectively, these being Production Engineering and Maintenance Engineering and Quality Management. Production Engineering is responsible for devising innovative processes that can streamline the Transformation Process of producing an Audi Vehicle, thus saving significant costs if these can be implemented effectively. Maintenance Engineering is responsible for the continued operations of seeing through the existing Engineering Processes attributed to building Audis vehicles. This needs to be done effectively to ensure that quality products are being produced to the correct schedule set out by the Scheduling Function. Quality Management is responsible for the checking and vetting of the finished outputs to ensure it is to Audi AGs quality specifications. This is crucial to offer a consistent quality of product and ensure customers are happy with the products they receive. (Audi AG, 2016) Logistics Inventory Management. Inventory Management supervises the flow of goods from manufacturers to warehouses and from these facilities to point of sale. (Manufacturing Tech, 2017) Within the Organisational Context at Audi AG, the Operations Management Function of Inventory Management is incorporated within the Logistics Department. Inventory Management is responsible for supervising the process of managing inventory at various degrees/levels of completion/processing of those materials from Raw Materials through to Finished Products. Inventory Managements primary objective is to minimise the amount of excess capital that is expended on surplus inventory; the storage, transport and management of such inventory is very costly to organisations. Other reasons behind the implementation of this process is to be able to successfully meet seasonal demand, variation in production demand, ability to take advantage of quantity discounts, highlight quality/other issues in the Production Li ne and to streamline the Production Process and reduce costs. (Management Study, 2017) Within Audi AG, the Logistics Function must ensure to manage their inventory of Raw Materials (Engine Parts, Interior Materials, Chassis Etc.) so that they do not have excess Inventory costing the business money through unnecessary storage of such materials. Audi AG implement an Operational Approach called Just-In-Time (JIT) which will be explored in detail below, however broadly speaking it ensures the delivery of materials from Suppliers at precisely the time at when they are required in the Production Line. This program is devised in association with the Scheduling Function and mitigates the risk of unnecessary Raw Materials Inventory. Audi AG also must contend with the matter of Finished Goods Inventory (Completed Vehicles). The approach within Audi AG is to ensure to sell such stock as quickly as possible while the vehicles are worth the most money, often through promotions on certain models and incentives to purchase the Models/Variations whereby there is excess Finished Goods Inventory. (Management Study, 2017) Audi also removes this form of inventory through offering the vehicles as Company Cars or through Employee Centred Incentive Schemes. (Audi AG, 2017) It is the role of Inventory Management to also prevent these occurrences from happening and analysing Sales Trends Forecasts to minimise excess Finished Goods Inventory; as the costs to store and the depreciation of the vehicles reduces the profitability of the organisation. 2.2 Key Operational Approaches To Operations Management 2.2.1 Just-In-Time Philosophy/Theory The Just-In-Time Philosophy (JIT) is primarily used within Manufacturing/Retail focused organisations, however the theory can be applied across a range of different market sectors. Just-In-Time (JIT) refers to the process of the supply of materials, either from external suppliers or from other areas within the organisation, delivering the items to the relevant department/area of the business at precisely the time that they need it. The main objective being to achieve reduction and mitigation of surplus raw materials within the organisation with a view to increasing productivity, (Toyota Global, 2017) The art of just-in-time production consists of keeping intermediate stock levels down to an absolute minimum, yet none the less having each part arrive at the predetermined point at precisely the right time. (Audi, 2017) JIT is a Production Model where items are manufactured/created to meet demand, not created in surplus/advance of need. (Tech Target, 2017) Within the Organisational Cont ext at Audi AG, implementing Just-In-Time within the Procurement Process can significantly streamline the Production-Line Process and lead to increased productivity. For Example, within Production Line A at Audi Neckarsulm Plant, Germany the Scheduling and Logistics Department will utilise sophisticated computer systems to ascertain the quantity of each product is required to produce a given number of cars per day i.e. (500 Michelin 750 Continental Tyres Per Day). The suppliers for these tyres will then be allocated a precise time slot to deliver the items Just-In-Time for when they are required in the Production Line Process. This can assist to eliminate waste, inconsistencies, unreasonable requirements thus resulting in increased productivity in the line. (Toyota Global, 2017) 220.127.116.11 Advantages of Applying Just-In-Time Philosophy (JIT) Lower Stock/Raw Materials Inventory results in a significant reduction in storage space which saves capital in rental and insurance costs. (Tutor2U, 2017) As stock is only purchased when orders are placed, it results less working capital tied up in stock, which can be invested elsewhere in/outside the business. (Tutor2U, 2017) Mitigates the issue of un-sold finished stock being produced due to sudden non-forecasted increases in demand and prevents the risk of stock perishing due to it only arriving when it is needed to be used. This can increase Profitability within Audi AG due to unnecessary capital not being expended on wasted materials/stock. (Tutor2U, 2017) -Drives higher standards on the Production Line and with Suppliers due to there being little room for error with Minimal Stock retained to account for errors on the Production Line and very precise Delivery Slots can ensure Supplier Standards are maintained, thus increasing Productivity of these aspects within Audi AG. (Tutor2U, 2017) 18.104.22.168 Disadvantages of Applying Just-In-Time Philosophy (JIT) Little/No Room for Error. This is a big contributing disadvantage to the system for both the Production-Line. Minimal stock is kept for re-working faulty products due to the implementation of this process, therefore a lot of pressure is placed on the Production-Line to get things right first time. (Tutor2U, 2017) -Heavily Reliant on Suppliers. Suppliers are allocated a small-time slot to deliver the correct amount of the product that is specified by the Scheduling and Procurement Functions. If they miss their slot, deliver incorrect quantity/type of materials this can cause the Production Line to falter, meaning less vehicles are made, productivity is decreased and in-turn profitability. (Tutor2U, 2017) -There is no spare finished stock to cater for unexpected increases in demand, however the flexibility of the system means that it can react quickly to demand changes. Albeit this will not be as rapid for the consumer as having finished stock ready to be distributed. (Tutor2U, 2017) 2.2.2Six Sigma Six Sigma is a widely used Operational Approach towards Operations Management and is frequently applied within Manufacturing Businesses, however the fundamental processes also apply within businesses operating within the Service Industry. The Purpose of Six Sigma is to reduce process variation so that virtually all the products or services provided meet or exceed customer expectations. (DTI, 2017) Six Sigma adopts a very data driven, disciplined method for eliminating defects within processes and promoting business improvement within organisations. (iSixSigma, 2017) Within Audi AG, this could mean the Manufacture of a Car Model or the Service offered to customers throughout the Sales Process. (Audi AG, 2016) Six Sigma is able to show quantitatively how a process is performing and to achieve Six Sigma Status, a process must not produce more than 3.4 defects per million opportunities. (iSixSigma, 2017) Six Sigma is dissected into three core elements including: Process Improvement, Proc ess Design/Re-Design Process Management and will be explored below. 22.214.171.124Process Improvement The Process Improvement aspect of the Six Sigma Model addresses the concept of improving existing processes with the ultimate objective of increasing the quality of product/service that the consumer receives and attainment of Six Sigma Status
Friday, September 20, 2019
Discussion on Women Education and Empowerment in India Women constitute almost half of the population in the world. But the prevailing masculine ideology made them suffer a lot as they were denied equal opportunities in different parts of the world. The rise of feminist ideas have, however, led to the tremendous improvement of womens condition through out the world in recent times. India being a developing nation and having huge tussles among its political, religious and administrative organs resulting into blocked development and the worst effect of that we can witness into women condition .They do not have proper chance to learn and grow and access to education has been one of the most pressing demands of womens rights . Women education in India has also been a major preoccupation of both the government and civil society as educated women can play a very important role in the development of the country. History of Women Education in India(4,6):Although in the Vedic period women had access to education in India but as the time grew they lost this right to avail education and academic exposure. However, in the British period there was revival of interest in womens education in India due to Britishers strong influence to the core Indian education system. During this period, various socio religious movements led by eminent persons like Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar emphasized on womens education in India. Mahatma Jyotiba Phule, Periyar and Baba Saheb Ambedkar were leaders of the lower castes in India who took various initiatives to make education available to the women of India. They also ensured about their participation in the social gatherings and events by introducing them into polity and administration at all levels. However womens education got a fillip after the country got independence in 1947 and the government has taken various measures to provide education to a ll Indian women. As a result womens literacy rate has grown over the three decades and the growth of female literacy has in fact been higher than that of male literacy rate. While in 1971 only 22% of Indian women were literate, by the end of 2001 54.16% female were literate. The growth of female literacy rate is 14.87% as compared to 11.72 % of that of male literacy rate and is on growing path. Government has taken a step forward by making education compulsory and free to girl child till the age of fourteen. They are getting reservations in public sector exams and private sectors like Banks, Transport Services, Hospitality and Tourism, Healthcare etc. (4. Freedom Struggle By- Bipin Chandra Pal) Table The Literacy Rate in India 1901-2011 PercentageÃ Ã ofÃ Ã Ã Ã LiteratesÃ Ã Ã toÃ Ã totalÃ Ã Ã population YearÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã PersonsÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã MalesÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Females 1901Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 5.3Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 9.8Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 0.7 1911Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 5.9Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 10.6Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 1.1 1921Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 7.2Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 12.2Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 1.8 1931Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 9.5Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 15.6Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 2.9 1941Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 16.1Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 24.9Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 7.3 1951Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 16.7Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 24.9Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 7.3 1961Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 24.0Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 34.4Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 13.0 1971Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 29.5Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 39.5Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 18.7 1981Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 36.2Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 46.9Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 24.8 1991Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 52.1Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 63.9Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 39.2 2001Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 65.38 Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 76.0Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 54.0 2011(Recent data) 74.04 82.14 65.46 The above table shows that there is an improvement in women literacy in India during the years. But when we compare it with male literacy it becomes a concern area. (9. Censusindia.gov.in) Importance of Women Education in India(7):Women education in India plays a very important role in the overall development of the country. It not only helps in the development of half of the human resources, but in improving the quality of life at home and outside. Educated women not only tend to promote education of their girl children, but also can provide better guidance to all their children. Moreover educated women can also help in the reduction of infant mortality rate and growth of the nation. Education is a potent tool in the emancipation and empowerment of women. Its true that greatest single factor which can incredibly improve the status of women in any society is education. It is indispensable that education enables women not only to gain more knowledge about the world outside of her shell and home but helps her to get status, positive self esteem, and self confidence. It imparts necessary courage and inner strength to face challenges in life. Apparently it also facilitates them to procure a job and supplement the income of family and achieve social status. Education especially of women has a major impact on health and nutrition as an instrument of developing a sustainable strategy for population control. Moreover educated women can play an equally important role as men in nation building. Thus there is no denying fact that education empowers women. For example the different organs of the United Nations and experts on womens liberation argue for womens education as the basic step to attain equality with men. ( 7. Saraswathi Mishra, Status of Indian Women,Gyan Publishing House, New Delhi, 2002) Obstacles:As we have discussed earlier to improve women education and condition in India various initiatives and corrective measures have been done but still a lot is expected to be accomplished. THE ROOT CAUSES FOR LOW LITERACY AMONG WOMEN IN INDIA Women education is a multi-dimensional phenomenon. No single factor or cause can be held responsible for very low literacy rate of women in India. Subsequently it is associated with combination of many factors including social, cultural, economic, educational, demographic, political and administrative and so on. The following are the some of the important factors which could be attributed for the present poor state of affairs of womenfolk in education. The Lower Enrolment: The lower enrolment of girls in schools is one of the foundational factors which stand as stumbling block for women empowerment in India. Reliable sources indicate that more than 50 % of the Non-Starters (those who have never been to school) are girls.Ã According to the latest statistics, two out of every ten girls in the age group of 6-11 are still not enrolled in schools. (1) Higher drop-out rate among girls from schools: The incidence and prevalence of drop -outs among girls especially in rural, tribal and slums areas seem to be quite high. According to available sources, occurrence of drop-out and stagnation amongst girls is nearly twice that of boys all over India. (1) Girl Child as Second Mother:In many families girl children play the role of second mother by shouldering the responsibilities of household work such as looking after the sibling, fetching water, collecting firewood, bringing fodder for cattle, cleaning and cooking etc.Ã In rural India especially in poor families this traditional sex role makes girl child handicapped and conditioned by the attitude of mother and the family and discourages girl child to go school as it becomes secondary and unimportant. Hence girl child is getting deprived of her basic and fundamental right of education and freedom. (8) Bonded Labor System: This social evil is a quite discouraging phenomena which stand as barrier for girls education in rural areas for the underprivileged families of washer men and agricultural labor , scheduled caste and scheduled tribes. Caste System as a Barrier : Children belonging to low caste families are forced to learn skills and work ways and not encouraged to go to school due to various factors. Strict instruction /threat from high caste communities for their selfish motives of keeping them as domestic servants and child laborers in the farms or factory. We can witness this through the stories of various factories and farm houses in industrial cities of India. Media is also playing a crucial role here in promoting as well as resisting these mishaps. (8) Bane of Dowry:Dowry system and other social practices act as main causes of the neglect of the girl child and discrimination against girl child including the deprivation of right of education. In many families especially poor and down-trodden think that if their daughters are educated more, they have to accumulate more assets and properties to provide as dowry in large proportion at the time of marriage, so prefer rather to either stop their children with average education and so on but never higher education. This prevails more in underprivileged families and communities. (1) Child Labour Practice:A large segment of child population in India is engaged in child labour practices. According to UN sourcesÃ India is the most child labour populous nation in the globe with more than 50 million child labourers indulged in beedi works , carpet making , bricks,Ã mining , quarrying ,glass, bangles, match and fireworks, gem polishing ,handloom works. zari,Ã embroidery ,coir industry, domestic works, construction etc. In most of these industries girl children are preferred for high productivity and low cost. (8) Poor School Environment for girls: In general the school environment for girls in India is not really interesting and encouraging. The subjects taught in schools are also not related to the environment of girl children. The methods of teaching are mostly out dated, rigid and uninteresting. There are still hundreds of schools with poor basic amenities such as drinking water, latrine and toilet facilities, improper building, and inadequate number of teachers especially female teachers preferable for any parents for safety of their girl children from different types of exploitation and abuse. (7) Female age at marriage: There is high association of female literacy with female age at marriage.Ã By and large the female age at marriage of 18 Ã ( recently 21 years ) as prescribed by various legislations not at all followed in India .It is very much ignored and neglected by the families of parents with low literacy and illiteracy background. This obnoxious practice discourages female children to continue their schooling and higher education as they enter into family life at the early age which is not advisable from the physical and mental health point of view and also of social development. (7) Inferiority, subservience and domesticity:The female child in Indian culture especially in rural, tribal and poor families is expected to develop the qualities of inferiority; subservience and domesticity which place sever limitations on her education and development. They are considered to be lesser important for getting knowledge of outside world and exposure to education and liberty. (6) Poverty as a Barrier: In many poverty stricken families, children especially girls are considered as economicÃ Ã assets as they bring income for livelihood as well to save from economic crises due to death or incapacity of parents (sick/ handicapped/aged). Ineffective Law Enforcing Machinery:Indian constitution and various legislations pertaining to education to children assure free and compulsory education all children of this nation but unfortunately the enforcement machinery fail to discharge its duties and responsibilities to the satisfaction of the public interest and welfare of women. Due to this wrong implementation of right policies also women of our country is getting severely affected. (5) Demographic Factors:The high population growth rate, rapid urbanisation, migration etc also attribute immensely for the poor literacy level of women and girls in India. In these frequent transition girl Childs and women are getting neglected, uncared and unheard. (5) Poor Political Will and Conviction: Government officials, policy makers, politicians etc of our country have neither political will nor conviction for the empowerment of women in general. The only think about their personal benefits and money making ignoring the welfare of the community for whom and by whom they have reached to that position. It is a very sad and disappointing aspect of Indias democracy. (5) Gender discrimination:It still persists in India .Male are still dominating and commanding the social structure of the nation and lot more needs to be done to improve womens participation in this regard e.g. womens education. The gap in the male-female literacy rate is just a simple indicator. While the male literary rate is more than 75% according to the 2001 census, the female literacy rate is just 54.16%.Prevailing prejudices, low enrollment of girl child in the schools, engagements of girl children in domestic works and high drop out rate are major obstacles in the path of making all Indian women educated. (6) Poor Academia:Another reason for poor quality of women educationhere is the poor quality of teachers ingovernment schools .Government schools are unable toattract good quality teachers due toinadequate teaching facilities and low salaries. The government currently spends only 3% of its GDP on educationwhich is inadequate and insufficient. Toimprovethe quality of education, the government needs tospend more money from its coffers on education. (4) Steps to improve their Participation: A A significant development in recent years has been the mushrooming of community-based organizations and initiatives at the local level for women. Reports indicates that self-help programs, often in the form of savings and credit or micro credit schemes, have succeeded in changing the lives of poor women, enhancing incomes and generating positive externalities such as increased self-esteem. Micro credit is about much more than access to money. It is about women gaining control over the means to make a living. It is about women lifting themselves out of poverty and vulnerability. I is about women achieving economic and political empowerment within their homes, their villages, their countries. (5) In this whole paper we have discussed about women condition in India in terms of access to education, opportunity to learn and grow and problems in achieving the same and at last some of the measures to rectify the errors and making things happen. B-One more initiative taken by the government is the voucher system. Under the voucher system, parents are allowed tochoose a school for their children and they get full or partial reimbursement for the expenses from the government. But however, the voucher system has also a draw back because it will further aggravate the problem of poor quality of educationingovernment schools. Such a system will shift resources from government schools toprivate schools. This will worsen the situation of government schools which are already under-funded. Moreover, if the same amount given as vouchers can be used tobuild infrastructure inschools then the government can realize economies of scale. (6) C-The government of India has also felt the need to put in place an appropriate institutional mechanism to look after the Education Rights of Women and thus instituted the formulation of All India Womens Conference, National Womens Commission and State Womens Commission. At the same time government has approved special grants and allowances to NGOs working for the cause of women upliftment and social mobility. Self Help Groups have also been constituted at Panchayat level to provide a platform for the rural women to discuss issues such as family planning, child marriage, widow remarriage, Sati, domestic violence. Mother Teresas Women Universityhas greatly helped in the cause of women empowerment who received Noble Peace Prize for her genuine social work. (6) D -India is getting a great help from World Bankfor the betterment of women education and their empowerment in the country .It has approved funding for Andhra Pradesh Rural Poverty Reduction Programme (APRPRP) thus garnering international supportfor the upliftment of women. Womens reservation Bill in the Lok Sabha has gained momentum with Govt. of India promising the reservation of one-third seats in Parliament for the women. (8) E -One of the recommendations of National Policy on Education (1986) by the Government of India is to promote empowerment of women through the agency of education and it is considered to be a land mark in the approach to womens education of illiterate. The National Literacy Mission is another positive step towards eradication of illiteracy in the age group of 15-35 years. Women education has assumed special significance in the context of Indias planned development, as it is incorporated in every Five-year plans as the major programme for the development of women. Universalization of elementary education, enrolment and retention of girls in the schools, promotion of balwadies and crutches, raising number of schools and colleges of arts , science, and professional for girls , Politechniques, girls hostels, multipurpose institutions and adult education programmes are some of the steps being Ã taken by both central and state governments in India to boost-up womens education. (5) F Ã Since the prevailing situation of poor or less enrolment of girls in schools closes the doors for development and prosperity of future generation of women, concerted efforts must be initiated jointly by the government, parents and civil society to achieve universal enrolment for girls without any compromise. The enrolment can be made even mandatory for every girls by the government in the realm of compulsory education. (5) G -The Ministry of Education both at Centre and State level should work out strategic steps to stop firmly the ongoing high drop -outs among girls especially in rural, tribal and slums areas with the serious involvement of voluntary organisations in every locality to realize zero drop-out among girls. (7) H -The poverty stricken families can Ã be identified through proper research and necessary poverty alleviationÃ services be provided to strengthen the incomeÃ thereby to enable the families to send their children to schools and colleges without much financial difficulties I -Bonded Child labour and Child labour Ã practice must be abolished with strict administrative measures and the relieved children form bondage Ã should be integratedinto schools with suitable defence social mechanism. J Appropriate steps should be taken by the educational authorities with the participation of communities in order to bring the girl children to the main stream of education and development at every level including family and community. K -The female child in every Indian family irrespective of socio-economic status should be moulded to overcome the challenges of inferiority; subservience and domesticity which place sever limitations on her education and development. Every family irrespective its socio-cultural and economic background can take it a challenge to bring up their girl children as dignified human being with empowerment in physical , mental, economic and social dimensions of life. (7) L The Midday meal scheme and other educational supportive services like free text books,Ã Note books , Fee uniforms , Free Bicycles, Free bus , scholarships Free bus pass and so on Ã as done in the state of Tamil Nadu can be provided in all states and union territories to lift up the literacy level among girls. (6) M -As social evils like dowry, child marriage , caste system and other practices deprive rights of education for children belonging to poor and underprivileged families and communities, they should eliminated through well-designed packages of mass awareness programmes and social welfare measures with full support ofÃ public, political parties, NGOs and government agencies. (7) N -The electronic and print media can play significant role in building a good and positive image about girls and women in general in the society by giving no focus for such advertisements and news fetching commercial gain at the cost of depicting women as an object. This would help in changing the society s attitudes towards girls and their roles to treat every girl or woman as human being with self respect and dignity. (7) O -Government, voluntary sector and philanthropic organisations and individuals should come forward to provide free education for poor girls and provide freeÃ hostel facilitiesÃ for girls studying in schools and colleges in every state of India. This will certainly encourage children of poor families to pursue good and higher education without much impediments. (6) P -The schools of social work, departments of women studies, Women Universities and other educational institutions in hand with Ã NGOs Ã and social service organisations such as Rotary Clubs , Lions Clubs , women lib organisations associations can work together to improve the educational status of the womenfolk in this country on mutual respect and understanding. (7) Q -The parents of children belonging to poor, underprivileged familiesÃ must be specially educated with proper social formula to help themÃ to understand the significance of educationÃ for their girl children as foundation for empowerment. (1) R -Government, NGOs and public should work hand in hand to implement the minimum age at marriage (21and above) Awareness should be created to institutionalise it as a traditional practice cut acrossing castes, religions, community etc. (5) S Government officials, policy makers, political parties and others should have adequate political will and conviction to empower women in India without double standard mind T -The law enforcing machinery should be made really effective with efficient monitoring vigilant system to implement the constitutional and legislative provisions and administrative measures to assure free and compulsory education for all children of this nation without any gender discrimination. (7) Its true that there is great deal of requirement to uplift women education in India at the grass root level because majority of the female population live in the rural areas .They do not avail the basic things in their life and to get education is still a distant dream for them. However Indian government is coming up with various scheme in their five year plan to make the situation healthy and encouraging for these women. In 1990s, grants from foreign donor agencies enabled the formation of new women-oriented NGOs(3). Self-help groups and NGOs such as Self Employed WomenHYPERLINK http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SEWAHYPERLINK http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SEWAs Association (SEWA) have played a major role in womens rights in India. Many women have emerged as leaders of local movements. For example, Medha Patkar of the Narmada Bachao Andolan. Companies like NIIT Ltd. (2) has come up with the project called Affirmative Action where they are taking girls from the down trodden areas and training them about English language, basic computer knowledge and after that helping them to get jobs in Retail, BPO ,Hospitality sectors. In this way the are educating them and by providing jobs women are getting empowered in taking decision, participating in family income and by helping their kids to make the future bright and opportunity oriented. (2 , 3) There is no doubt about the fact that development of women has always been the central focus of planning since Independence. Empowerment is a major step in this direction but it has to be seen in a relational context. A clear vision is needed to remove the obstacles to the path of womens emancipation both from the government and women themselves. Efforts should be directed towards all round development of each and every section of Indian women by giving them their due share. The status of women in India has been subject to many great changes over the past few millennia. From equal status with men in ancient times through the bad phases of the medieval period, to the promotion of equal rights by many reformers, the history of women in India has been on better track. In modern India, women have acquired high offices in India including that of the President, Prime minister, Speaker of the Lok Sabha, Leader of Opposition, etc. The current President of India is a woman. (5) A review of governments various programmes for women empowerment such as Swashakti, Swayamsidha, Streeshakti, Balika samrudhi yojana and another two thousand projects reveal that little has been done or achieved through these programmes. The discrepancy in the ideology and practice of the empowerment policy of women in India constitutes its continued social, economic and social backwardness. Women make up 52% of our countrys population. Hence there can be no progress unless their needs and interests are fully met. Empowerment would not hold any meaning unless they are made strong, alert and aware of their equal status in the society. Policies should be framed to bring them into the mainstream of society. It is important to educate the women. The need of the hour is to improve female literacy as education holds the key to development. (2 , 3) There is no doubt about the fact that development of women has always been the central focus of planning since Independence. Empowerment is a major step in this direction but it has to be seen in a relational context. A clear vision is needed to remove the obstacles to the path of womens emancipation both from the government and women themselves. Efforts should be directed towards all round development of each and every section of Indian women by giving them their due share. I believe with the likes of Pratibha Patil, Sonia Gandhi, Indra Nooyi, Chanda Kochar etc. bagging the top jobs, it would not be long when India would be boosting of its Gender Equality Index (GEI) and Gender Development Index (GDI).Lesser will be the social stigma of women exploitation which have haunted it for many years gone by. Summary: Empowerment can be defined as the totality of the following or similar capabilities: Having decision-making power of their own Having access to information and resources for taking proper decision Having a range of options from which you can make choices (not just yes/no, either/or.) Ability to exercise assertiveness collective decision making Having positive thinking on the ability to make change Ability to learn skills for improving ones personal or group power. Ability to change others perceptions by democratic means. Involving in the growth process and changes that is never ending and self-initiated Increasing ones positive self-image and overcoming stigma Conclusion: From these discussions we can say that the most common explanation of womens empowerment is the ability to exercise full control over ones actions. The last decades have witnessed some basic changes in the status and role of women in our society. There has been shift in policy approaches from the concept of welfare in the seventies to development in the eighties and now to growth in the nineties and now trumpet of empowerment. This process has been further accelerated with some sections of women becoming increasingly self-conscious of their discrimination in several areas of family and public life. They are also in a position to mobilize themselves on issues that can affect their overall position.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Teaching the Future Today School is often not enjoyable as one grows up and sometimes it is even dreaded. So many children will make any excuse in the world not to attend school. Students will begin to skip school and inevitably, they will drop out of school if they are able to. I, however, loved going to school. I remember while growing up school was always something I looked forward to everyday. Throughout my school years, I participated in everything I was able to when it came to school activities. Though, towards the end I was getting excited about graduation and all of the senior events, I was also saddened because I did not want these days to end. Many people often wondered why it was that I had such a love for school. I even wondered at times what it was that made me feel so compelled to go to school. I was not the most popular person in school, though I had many great friends. I kept my grades up the best I could but I was never the most academic student in school. There was sti ll something that made my school days the best memories of my life. Teachers, my teachers were what made my days flow by happily as they helped me grow educational and morally. Teachers are sometimes the only thing that makes school fun and enjoyable. School is obviously about education and learning and meant to teach one the basics of education, allowing them to grow mentally. There is however such a thin line between educational and moral growth. To teach one without the other uprooting is nearly impossible. Growing up I was so luck to have been taught by the finest teachers out there and I can honestly say that I never had a teacher in school that made me feel uncomfortable or inadequate. Learning was fun to me and that is mostly thanks to my upbringing and having wonderful educators. I have been taught as a student in many different states such as Florida, Michigan, North Carolina, Oklahoma, and West Virginia and in these states I have always been blessed with fine educators.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Hooligans Ã¢â¬Å"Hundreds of English fans have been departed from Belgium after scenes of mass violence in Belgian cities and football authorities have threatened to expel the English team from the competition if there is another outbreak of the English DiseaseÃ¢â¬ This was an article dated 20 June 2000 written by an English journalist. It is obvious from this article that world is facing a great problem nowadays. Actually it would be wrong to use the term Ã¢â¬ËnowadaysÃ¢â¬â¢ because the Ã¢â¬ËEnglish DiseaseÃ¢â¬â¢ namely hooliganism have been a problem for many centuries. There are many things to say on hooliganism but first it would be better to start with its definition. Hooliganism doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a standard definition. But it can be defined as destruction of properties or injury to persons, sometimes involving theft, whether by a gang or a small group of young people. Hooliganism is characterised as a lack of self-control, love of malicious mischief and idleness passing into dishonest and crime. Hooligans are usually made up of boys and young men, aged between 15 and 25 and their main targets are other groups, who only differ from them in their being composed of fans of another football team. And another interesting fact about hooligans is that they consider themselves to be true fans: they support the team for better or worse, they create the highly praised Ã¢â¬ËatmosphereÃ¢â¬â¢ inside stadiums. Their main interest does not seem much to see brilliant football but to see their team win. As I mentioned in the beginning football hooliganism is known as the Ã¢â¬ËEnglish DiseaseÃ¢â¬â¢ but it has been a problem throughout Europe especially in Germany, Holland, Italy and Belgium as well as in the UK. Also Greece, Czech Republic, Denmark, Austria and Turkey witnessed these disturbances in football matches. There are a lot of work done all around the world to avoid the harm hooligans give to the environment and themselves. European Parliament and the National Parliaments of the European Union made effort to avoid the violence throughout Europe. European Council issued a report on hooliganism September 1999 and tried to take further steps on this problem. After all the work done by various sociologists and initiatives of the European Institutions still it is difficult to observe decline in violence in European Stadiums. To make it clear that World is suffering enough from hooliganism for many years... ...cisive measures like banning Britain from football games. I want to end my essay with an article written by Graham L. Jones in 26.06.2000. This article will be helpful in making a summary of the works about hooliganism. Ã¢â¬ËThe time for talk is over: Ban the Brits! DonÃ¢â¬â¢t wait another minute. Forget the possible quarterfinal game. Send Britain from Euro 2000 back to home. Yes, itÃ¢â¬â¢s my own country IÃ¢â¬â¢m talking about. And yes, itÃ¢â¬â¢s the team and players that I want to see pay the price for the absolute ineffectiveness of English Government and English judiciary doing nothing about hooliganismÃ¢â¬â¢ Bibliography HOLT R. 1989.Sport and the British. Oxford: Oxford University Press KERR H. 1994.Understanding Soccer Hooliganism. Buckingam: Open University Press TAYLOR R. 1992.Football and its Fans. Leicester: Leicester Universty Press Resources from Internet noviolence.com/archives dailynews.yahoo.com-22.06.2000 bbc.com- Hooliganism made in England but big abroad-26.02.1998 titonet.com/hooligans thesportjournal.com- A developmental view of soccer hooliganism by A.J Harley intorminc.co.uk- Hooliganism-a political football eserver.org- Playing for England by Paul Smith
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Antony and Cleopatra is based upon a dualistic vision of experience, the world of Rome pitted against the world of Egypt
Antony and Cleopatra is based upon a dualistic vision of experience, the world of Rome pitted against the world of Egypt. Rome is associated with military glory, honor, and moral duty and this is clearly depicted by the imagery used throughout the play. Through Cleopatra's words in Act 1 Scene1, the audience gets some insight into the Roman way even before Shakespeare introduces it on stage. Ã¢â¬Å"If the scarce bearded Caesar have not sent his powerful mandate to you, Ã¢â¬ËDo this, or this; Take in that kingdom and enfranchise that. As she tries to predict the message form Rome, she creates an image of a powerful and commanding Caesar whose sole concern is to ensure the political superiority of the Triumvirate. Shakespeare uses the character of Caesar to represent Rome and therefore creates the idea of a politically-motivated nation. The news from the messenger in Act 1 Scene 2 also supports the political urgency of Rome as it creates images of war and conquest that is occurring back in Rome. He speaks of Fulvia coming into Ã¢â¬Å"the fieldÃ¢â¬ and the Ã¢â¬Å"conquering bannerÃ¢â¬ of Labenius, who is an enemy of the Trimuvirate. However, the battle of Actium which occurs after the separation of the Triumvirate is where imagery truly serves to illustrate the military urgency that is associated with Rome as images of ships, sails, swords and battle give the audience a greater understanding of the emphasis they place on war and the preservation of power. This is obvious in Caesar's words as delivers commands for war; Ã¢â¬Å"Strike not by land; keep whole. Provoke not battle till we have done at sea. Caesar's words help to define the Roman vision of experience: militaristic and male, marked by heroic restraint in difficult circumstances, a willed ability to combat one's deepest feelings, a sustained composure when everyone else is falling apart. Egypt, on the other hand, presents a stark contrast to the political world of the Romans. Egypt represents instinctive passion, extravagant love, fertility, and magnanimity. Just as Caesar represents Rome, Cleopatra's character is used to represent Egypt as a whole. The extravagance of Egypt becomes immediately obvious as Cleopatra enters in Act 1 Scene 1. She enters with a flourish of fanfare, a train of female servants and eunuchs fanning her which evokes an image of absolute comfort and relaxation. There is no hint of political concern as she and Antony profess their love to each other in extravagant words which highlight their instinctive passion. This is reflected in Antony's response to Cleopatra's question of the extent of his love; Ã¢â¬Å"Then must thou needs find out new heaven, new earth. Ã¢â¬ There are also various references to food and drink in Cleopatra's words and these images serve to create a sense of pleasure which is associated with eating. She refers to her Ã¢â¬Ësalad days' as she speaks of her youth. She also requests Ã¢â¬Å"music and moody foodÃ¢â¬ to quell her anxiety about Antony's return to her. The atmosphere of pleasure in Egypt is emphasized by Antony in Act 1Scene 1 as he expresses his wishes to indulge in the gay abandon and revelry of Cleopatra's kingdom; Ã¢â¬Å"There's not a moment of our lives that should stretch without some pleasure now. Ã¢â¬ Another important illustration of the contrast between Rome and Egypt is the imagery that depicts the change in Antony's character. Through the observations of other characters in the play, Shakespeare makes obvious the deterioration of Antony's political prowess and power. The description of this decline usually consists of a juxtaposition of imagery of strength and fortitude with that of weakness and submission. The strength of character is associated with the Antony in Rome who held his political duties in high regard. He deteriorates into a Ã¢â¬Å"doting mallardÃ¢â¬ of Cleopatra in Egypt where it appears that the atmosphere of abandon and relaxation has cast a spell over him, making him forget his duties as one of the most powerful men in the world. He is described as Ã¢â¬Å"The triple pillar of the world transformed into a strumpet's fool. Ã¢â¬ This creates the image of deterioration for one who held great power. The imagery of strength versus weakness used in Scarus' speech in Act 1 Scene 1 also portrays the decline in Antony; Ã¢â¬Å"His captain's heart which in the scuffles of great fights hath burst the buckles on his breast, reneges all temper and becomes the bellows and the fan to cool a gypsy's lust. Ã¢â¬ The strength of Antony's character before his indulgence in the pleasure of the East is enforced by the imagery used in Caesar's tribute to Antony in Act 1 Scene 4. He describes Antony with images of strength and resilience' Ã¢â¬Å"at thy heel did famine follow, whom thou fought against,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"thou didst drink the stale of horses The contrast between Rome and Egypt also highlights the underlying themes of masculine order versus feminine order as well as the role of the woman . In Rome the masculine ethos which, while having room to honour women in certain limited ways, has little place for them in public life, other than as useful political tools or upholders of very masculine ideals or as producers of soldiers. There is little respect for them as is obvious in the imagery used by various Romans to describe Cleopatra. She is described as a lustful gypsy which is an image used to degrade her character. When Octavius thinks of how his sister should enter Rome in a manner fitting her importance, the only images he can reach for which might express his feelings are ones taken from the vocabulary of military triumphs: Ã¢â¬Å"The wife of Antony should have an army for an usher. Ã¢â¬ It is significant that he can convey his high esteem and strong feelings for her only in images more appropriate to a returning triumphant general. On the other hand, the woman holds a role of utmost importance in Egypt. Cleopatra's position as queen is the primary image of this. Enobarbus' tribute to her also creates an image of her infinite power and freedom as a woman. something entirely at odds with the Roman emphasis on predictable order, law, and consistency. Ã¢â¬Å"Age cannot wither her, nor custom stale her infinite variety. Ã¢â¬ In Cleopatra's palace, women talk openly about explicit sexuality. They are attended by men and this creates an image of female superiority. They express their sexual feelings, joke about sexual matters, and establish a close female community. The image of the horse in relation to Antony and Cleopatra's sexual encounters is one of few images that used to express sexuality. This highlights the ability of the woman to be open and expressive as opposed to that of Rome who is expected to be reserved and serve their men. Another major theme of the play to which imagery gives great insight is that of the love between Antony and Cleopatra. They profess their love for each other in an exaggerated style, using images of vastness to describe the extent of their feelings. In Act 1 Scene 1 when Cleopatra claims that she will set a limit (bourn) on Antony's love, he responds Ã¢â¬Å"Then must thou needs find out new heaven, new earth. Ã¢â¬ This trend continues throughout the play. Even in death their love is made evident by the imagery used in their speech. Cleopatra's motivation for suicide is her reunion with Antony in death; Ã¢â¬Å"I am again for Cyndus, to meet Marc Antony. Ã¢â¬ This creates the image of their first meeting and emphasizes the immortality of their love as she wishes to recreate that moment in the afterlife. Cleopatra herself finalizes this as she says Ã¢â¬Å"I have Immortal longings in me. Ã¢â¬ Another main focus of the play is politics and the desire for power. This gives rise to Ã¢â¬Ëworldliness' of the play as the Romans seek to preserve and expand their empire. The political strategies never remain confined to Rome and there is frequent mention of the capture of neighbouring countries The imagery used reinforces the sense of grandeur and the huge scope of the drama.. It is seen from Act 1 Scene 2 when the messenger form Rome describes Labenius conquering lands from Asia, Euphrates, Syria, Lydia and Ionia. There are also frequent images of the sea and the earth in relation to politics which give a sense of vastness and help to highlight the importance of politics and world conquest. This is illustrated by Cleopatra as she describes war as Ã¢â¬Å"the world's great snare. Ã¢â¬ Some of the political imagery used to describe Antony also helps to reinforce the huge scope of the drama. He is called Ã¢â¬Å"the greatest prince of the world,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"the demi- Atlas of the world,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"the crown o'th'earth. Ã¢â¬ He is not only a strong leader in Rome but a Ã¢â¬Å"triple pillar of the worldÃ¢â¬ as Rome's empire extends all over the globe. In examining the imagery of love and politics in Antony and Cleopatra, the underlying theme of war versus love cannot be ignored. This is made evident in the imagery in Antony's words as he struggles to find a balance between upholding his political duty and indulging in passion with Cleopatra. A prime example of this is when Antony is about to leave for war in Act 4 Scene 4. As Cleopatra tries to lace his armour he calls her Ã¢â¬Å"the armourer of my heart. Ã¢â¬ The image of armour gives a sense of impending war but Antony uses it to convey that Cleopatra has captured his heart. This contrasting imagery occurs several other times in the play, even in the same scene when he gives her a Ã¢â¬Å"soldier's kiss. Ã¢â¬ The juxtaposition of war and love illustrates Antony's conflict of choice between love and duty. It also helps to illustrate how he downplays the importance of war and politics in the face of love. Antony himself acknowledges this as he admits that he lost to Caesar at sea because he trusted Cleopatra's fleet to help him win the battle; Ã¢â¬Å"My sword made weak by my affection. Ã¢â¬Å"