Saturday, December 28, 2019

Middle Childhood Is Very Important Time In A Child’S...

Middle childhood is very important time in a child’s life. This is the time when a child starts to look up to their peers and starts to accept the actions of their peers and starts to understand what true friendship is. Middle childhood is a difficult time in a child’s life, the child grows from a young teen into an adolescent, and the change emotionally is sometimes overwhelming. Children of this age start to worry about what people think about them and what they can do to please everyone, even if it’s not the right thing. With all that is going on for the child in these times it sometimes leads to drug use, rebellious acts, depression, and peer pressure. Children at these ages feel the need to please everyone around them and will do†¦show more content†¦Sentiment and dating enter the photo interestingly and sexual movement turns into an alternative. The impact of partners/relationships and different friends are still exceptionally solid, yet the s takes are higher. In this time mischief can be higher depending on the company that is held. Self-esteem and confidence are normal topics all through the whole life improvement cycle. In center youth, correlations are made to check whether capacities are up to saw measures. This runs in accordance with Erikson s formative phase of industry versus mediocrity. How great a young person trusts coincides with how great they are at given errands. As pre-adulthood approaches, the concentration shifts from what they do to their identity. The part one plays in the public eye turns out to be more imperative whether it be in standard culture or some counterculture. A man s way of life, and age can impact egocentrism, adolescents trust that their appearance and conduct is under the watch of others. The other idea is the individual tale, which supplements the nonexistent crowd. The nonexistent group of onlookers moves toward becoming overcome with how youngsters look and act and how exceptional and uncommon they are. The youthful trusts that they are by one means or another interminable and unique. The individual tale has the immature trusting that nobody else comprehends or trusts that nobody else has ever been in this situation. The individual tale

Friday, December 20, 2019

Relationships in David Copperfield - 1115 Words

In David Copperfield, Dickens has many relationships, which you can compare to one another throughout the story. Dickens loves using foils to create creative and interestingly detailed relationships, which can parallel and mirror the views of the Neoclassical and Romantic periods. In this essay I will compare and contrast two relationships. The two relationships that I have chosen are David’s relationship with Agnes Wickfield and then with James Steerforth. Agnes’s relationship with David is a profitable and healthy one whereas Steerforth’s with David reminds me of a doctor letting a sick person bleed out, it’s unhealthy and does no good. Both of these relationships have interesting similarities and foils to one another.†¦show more content†¦She’s always listening to David and being the best possible friend she can be. Agnes sees right through Steerforth’s dark and handsome mask to what he really is in his heart. Agnes doesnâ⠂¬â„¢t want David to hang out with Steerforth because she sees that Steerforth is the kind of person that the Bible talks about when it says, in Proverbs, that, â€Å"He who walks with the wise grows wise but a companion of fools suffers harm†. When David sees Agnes and he is drunk, he is mortified and embarrassed that she would have to see him in that state. Agnes is perceptive of the danger Steerforth is to David and says, â€Å"If I were, indeed, your good Angel, Trotwood, there is one thing that I should set my heart on very much. On warning you against your bad Angel†. Steerforth is a foil to Agnes’s good Angel, and becomes the other Angel on David’s shoulder, the bad Angel. Her relationship with David is a wise one, and one that will prolong and strengthen David’s character whereas Steerforth’s relationship with David hinders his character development because he is so tied to Steerforth. Agnes’s relationship with David is lik e water and sunshine on a brand new blossoming rose. David is the blossoming rose, and Agnes is the sunshine and water that makes the rose bright and beautiful. That is in stark contrast to Steerforth’s relationship with David. David’s â€Å"rose† is being choked by Steerforth’s â€Å"thorns† and if the thorns weren’t takenShow MoreRelatedExplore the Relationship between Character and Environment. Essays1112 Words   |  5 Pagescharacter itself. Explore the relationship between character and environment in any one or two fictional works of the period. Both Great Expectations and David Copperfield are characterised by the close relationship between the characters and their immediate environment. This is emblematic of all Dickens novels, reflecting Dickens own life, recreating his experiences and journeys, using people and places to symbolise feelings and emotions. David Copperfield opens to `Pip in a churchyardRead MoreRomeo And The Germanic Word Buildungsroman Essay1589 Words   |  7 PagesGrey and David Copperfield The Germanic word Buildungsroman is a classification of literary genre that specifically focuses on personal accomplishment and maturation of main characters through texts. Buildungsroman is also considers to be the most significant description of emotional growth of main characters from their youth. This term Bildungsroman is closely associated with the two English novels written in the nineteenth century; â€Å"Agnes Grey† (1847) by Anne Bronte and â€Å"David Copperfield† (1850)Read More The Portrayal of Family in Charles Dickens David Copperfield4646 Words   |  19 PagesThe Portrayal of Family in Charles Dickens David Copperfield DECLARATION OF INTEGRITY. I declare that this study is my own and does not contain any unacknowledged work from any source. CONTEXT INTRODUCTION. 4 1. COPPERFIELDS (SENIOUR): Dicken’s pattern of 6 happy marriage. 2. DAVIDDORA’S MARRIAGE: the reasons of spiritual 8 separation in the family. 3. DAVIDAGNES’S MARRIAGE: Dicken’s ideal of 12 marriage 4. MR.MURDSTONECLARA: opposite to Dicken’s ideal 14 Of happy marriageRead MoreBook Report on David Copperfield by Charles Dickens1996 Words   |  8 Pages1. Title: David Copperfield 2. Genre/Category Descriptors: Fiction/Classic/Literary 3. Author/country of origin: Charles Dickens, United Kingdom 4. Themes*: Pick 2 and explain what the author is saying about each: As people age, they change- Dickens shows throughout the book that changes occur in people over time. Not only does David become much more confident, aware, and able to think for himself as time goes on, but the minor characters also experience change. Dickens shows that people areRead More Charles Dickens Reflection on Society in Hard Times, Oliver Twist, Nicholas Nickleby, and David Copperfield1988 Words   |  8 PagesCharles Dickens Reflection on Society in Hard Times, Oliver Twist, Nicholas Nickleby, and David Copperfield In this essay I will be examining how and why Dickens chose to comment on the society in which he lived through his novels. I will be examining ‘Hard Times’, ‘Oliver Twist’, ‘Nicholas Nickelby’ and ‘David Copperfield‘. Charles Dickens was considered to be one of the greatest English novelists during the Victorian period, and during this period, novelists had a tradition of commentingRead MoreThe Main Contributions to Charles Dickens Popularity1592 Words   |  6 Pageshis mother’s decision to keep Dickens working in the factory. In his later works, this subservient anger and resent would surface within his works as major themes or as motifs. In his eight novel David Copperfield [full title: The Personal History, Adventures, Experience and Observation of David Copperfield the Younger of Blunderstone Rookery (Which He Never Meant to Publish on Any Account)] Following an acclimation to â€Å"regular† life once more, Charles was sent to the Wellington House Academy in NorthRead MoreDavid Copperfield9349 Words   |  38 PagesDavid Copperfield by Charles Dickens†¦. Analysis by: Shrook Essam El-Din Table of Contents: a- Abstract . b- Charles Dickens life . c- Similarity between Charles childhood and David Copperfield . d- Autobiographical Elements of David Copperfield . e- Plot summary . f- Major themes . g- List of references . a- Abstract : David Copperfield captured the hearts and imagination of generations of readers since the day of its publication. Charles Dickens chose the mainRead Moreâ€Å"Art Is a Lie That Brings Us Nearer to the Truth† (Pablo Picasso)1692 Words   |  7 PagesArt is different from most areas of knowledge primarily in terms of its objective and also the means by which it reflects, transforms and expresses them. For art, like philosophy, reflects the reality in its relationship with man, and represents the latter, his spiritual world, and the relations between the individuals and their interactions with the world. Pablo Picasso was known for representing his work in a non-realistic manner. However, the audience could relate to his works; Guernica is anRead MoreAmerican Literature And Ways They Cultivate Their Own Methods Of Survival Within Their Societies1484 Words   |  6 Pagesfrankly and openly with Phoebe. But it is important to note that Salinger does appoint Holden as a rebel in o ne regard—he is a rebellious narrator. From the beginning of the novel, Holden assures his readers that he will not mimic â€Å"all that David Copperfield kind of crap† (1). The classic Dickens’ Bildungsroman novel frames a coming-of-age story within brackets of future maturity and understanding, showing the reader how much the narrator has grown and flourished. But at the end of The Catcher inRead More Charles Dickens Essay1932 Words   |  8 Pageswriters in the history of literature. Surely no English author is so well known and so widely read, translated and remembered as Charles Dickens. He fame is well deserved. From the pen of this great author came such characters as Oliver Twist, David Copperfield, Bob Cratchit and Tiny Tim, Mr. Pickwick, and Little Nett. Dickens was born on February 7, 1812, in Portsmouth and spent most of his childhood in London and Kent, both of which appear frequently in his novels. Charles Dickens was the son of

Thursday, December 12, 2019

Comparative Advantage and Optimal Trade Policy †MyAssignmenthelp

Question: Discuss about the Comparative Advantage and Optimal Trade Policy. Answer: Introduction: The GDP is ineffective welfare measure. GDP doesnt reflect the true economy health. A compressive measure like HDI is required since GDP fails to integrate welfare measures. GDP solely describes the value of all finished products produced within a country over a period of time. None of GDPs computation method include indicators of welfare. GDP is a proxy of a proxy measure hence lacks validity as welfare (Kubiszewski et al. 2013). It only include market transactions but disregards voluntary/domestic work with considerable impact on welfare which enhance living standards. GDP excludes black market transactions and unlawful activities with adverse impacts on welfare. In comparing the welfare of any two countries utilizing GDP per capital and the UNs HDI, the following two images are used in terms of literacy level. The 2006 figures can be used to compare the GDP and HDI. Based on 2006 figures retrieved from: , the figures indicate that United States ranks number one with a GDP of $13.2 trillion (current USD), whereas Japan comes next with $4.34 trillion, Germany with $2.90 trillion and China with $2.60 trillion. These countries at the topic take the lead in terms of activities happening within their borders but doesnt essentially mean that their populace are better off than the remaining countries in terms of the overal welfare. HDI figures (drawn from: indicate that Norway ranks top with highest HDI of 0.963, Iceland follows with HDI of 0.956 and Australia third with 0.955, Canada, Luxembourg and Sweden are tied at fourth position with 0.949. Niger is last with HDI of 0.281. Since HDI is relatively more detailed than GDP, countries that ranks high in GDP take lower ranks with HDI. As US is merely rank 10th, Japan 11th, Germany 20th and China eighty-fifth. This is because HDI includes additional indicators thereby allowing it provide a better image of state of well-being of the populace of a country. Citizens in Norway live longer lives than US citizens. Norway has a life expectancy at birth of 82.9 years in 2006 while US life expectancy merely stood at 77.70 years. The investment spending by firms is determined by the rate of interest criterion. Low rates of interest have always stimulated the housing construction while construction is reduced by higher rates of investment. There is a reciprocal relationship between the interest rates and the investment in the residential establishments in both Australia and the United States. Such a relationship is applicable to all forms of the investment: Higher rates of investment has a tendency to decrease the investment quantity, whereas lower rates of interest surge investment quantity. The investment demand curvature can be used to show an investment curvature for economy (Gilchrist, Sim and Zakrajek 2014). This curvature demonstrates the investment quantity demanded at each rate of interest, holding other determinants of demand fixed. At the lower rate of interest of r2, then demand curve for investment indicates that the investment quantity demanded shall ascend to B a year. A decrease in the rate of interest hence triggers the movement along the curvature of investment demand. The investment curve indicates the volume of the investment expenditure a year at every rate of interest in both countries, Ceteris paribus other determinants of investment. The curvature indicates that as the rate of interest declines in both Australia and the US, the investment level per year surges. A decline in rate of interest from r1 to r2 in both countries, for instance, would surge investment from A to B billion dollars a year, Ceteris paribus other investment determinants. From the above graph, the implication for behaviour of investment based on interest rate on GDP growth is two-fold. A reduction in interest increases investment and thus increasing the production and hence increased GPD in both Australia and the United States. On the contrary, an increase in the rates of interest will lead to a reduction in investment thus leading to less GDP in both Australia and United States. Comparative advantage drives the international trade. It is economic law that denotes economys ability to produce commodities at lowest opportunity cost than another country. A country will decide to produce the goods it can best produce and export and import the goods it cannot produce best (Laursen 2015). Comparative advantage benefits the country if it is relatively efficient at producing some goods by specialization, even when it lacks absolute advantage in its production (Costinot, Donaldson, Vogel and Werning 2015). Simply put, despite other countries being able to undertake the production of such commodities increasingly efficiently, an economy has to specialize in particular commodities where the opportunity-cost of such production is lowest in that economy (Laursen 2015). The forgone cost describes the immediate cost of best use which might be made of resources dedicated to the commodities production. Specializing in products that it produces relatively efficiently, an economy would sell more and subsequently surge its income. Comparative-advantage helps a company to specialize in products it is comparatively most efficient and effective, subsequently the total national output hence the national income could be surged (Laursen 2015). The country can produce more of such goods than it needs and export them to another country whereas utilizing the proceeds from export to purchase imported commodities that it does not produce. A country thus pushes its PPF outward hence surging its national output. All players (countries), at all times, are able to benefit mutually from the collaboration alongside free trade with comparative advantage, Comparative advantage is a useful concept in the theory of international trade. Riccardo demonstrated how Portugal (wine) and England (clothing) benefit by specializing and trading to their comparative advantage. The comparative advantage of China with the US is in terms of inexpensive labour. The workers of China produce unsophisticated consumer products at very extreme lower opportunity-cost (Laursen 2015). The US comparative-advantage is in specialized capital-intensive labour. The American employees produce sophisticated products/investment opportunities at the lowest opportunity cost. Both China and U.S. have gained by specializing as well as trading along such lines in a free-trade between both economies. References Costinot, A., Donaldson, D., Vogel, J. and Werning, I., 2015. Comparative advantage and optimal trade policy. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 130(2), pp.659-702. Gilchrist, S., Sim, J.W. and Zakrajek, E., 2014. Uncertainty, financial frictions, and investment dynamics (No. w20038). National Bureau of Economic Research. Kubiszewski, I., Costanza, R., Franco, C., Lawn, P., Talberth, J., Jackson, T. and Aylmer, C., 2013. Beyond GDP: Measuring and achieving global genuine progress. Ecological Economics, 93, pp.57-68. Laursen, K., 2015. Revealed comparative advantage and the alternatives as measures of international specialization. Eurasian Business Review, 5(1), pp.99-115.

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Foundation of Social Research Number of Homeless

Question: Discuss about the Foundation of Social Research for the Number of Homeless. Answer: Introduction: The aim of this literature review is to determine the perceptions of homeless people and perception of other people towards them. Number of homeless increased in Australia in past few years. There are many other peoples who are just a step away of being homeless in Australia, people which are living in housing which is not secure for them. This becomes area of concern for professionals as well as for government. Being homeless is not a choice, people are homeless due to financial and emotional problems. Perception of people towards homeless people is important because public perception effect the legislation and seriousness of matter. Usually an individual who has not any permanent residence or who live on the streets are considered to be homeless. As per the Mackenzie and chamberlains definition there are three categories of homelessness: Primary homelessness, Secondary homelessness and Tertiary homelessness (Homelessness Australia, n.d.). Literature Review: As per the book Homelessness in Australia which is edited by Chris Camberlain, Guy Johnson Catherine Robinson, arrival of Britishers changed the context of Australia these three ways that is economic, legal spiritual. Aboriginal peoples have their houses till the time colonies arrived in Australia. Aboriginal peoples are the people who live on the land before the colonies arrived. Homelessness begin in Australia with the arrival of the first fleet in Australia. In 1992 Prime Minister Paul Keatings mention in his speech about the damage suffered by traditional owners not only spiritual damage but also economic loss (Chamberlain, Johnson Robinson, 2014). As per the new research conduct, one in 10 Australians experience to being homeless at least for one time in their lives. Researchers of RMIT found that 11.1% women and 15.1% men have experience of being homeless at least one time in their lives that means 2.35 million of population of Australia spend a night without a house. From this 2.35 million at least 1.4 million people have also slept in rough conditions or in dwellings. Results of the report are shocking because no one expected such big numbers. As per Professor Chris Chamberlain and Dr Guy Johnson said that this report clear the confusion that only few homeless people slept rough (Schetzer, 2015). According to the society there are several causes of homelessness which are economic condition, limited availability of jobs, drugs and mental illness. Few think that being homeless is the choice of homeless people and some says that they are willing to earn sufficient income and not working hard for this (Phillips, 2014). According to Amy Donley and Emmanuel Jackson there are several questions which are there as how people treat the homeless people and how homeless people survive and fulfill their basic needs regarding food clothes. After asking these questions from several people, they got results which are really disappointing. According to the answers 50% of homeless people say that other people who are not homeless perceive them negatively, they treat them worthless. Some respondents mention that people treat them well and in a positive way. There are many charities which provide food and clothes to homeless people and fulfillment of their basic needs rely on the charity of these organizations. People admit if they miss a meal provided by these charities then they did not have meal for the whole day. There are many peoples who do not have option of free meal and they have to struggle a lot for their meal. There are several peoples who are presentable and they want to hide the fact that they are h omeless but usually major population of homeless people does not care about the presentation and hygiene factors (Donley Jackson, 2014). Stigma: A client give statement in Hanover Client Survey 2008, that I am homeless is embarrassing as it makes me feel like Im some lazy bum with a drug and alcohol problem who doesnt do anything to help themselves. I overhear people talking and this seems to be a common opinion Homeless people have been stigmatized and blamed for the situation in which they are, they usually suffer stigmatization by their fellow citizens. Discussion on this topic begins with the theory of Goffmans (1963). According to Goffman definition of stigma is an attribute that is deeply discrediting. Homeless people are not accepted by the society. Society considers them in a negative way. Even statements of care made by the people towards homeless people includes stigma. Goffman divide stigma in three categories; physical disability, defect in character of person defects in particular tribal, national or religious group (Crossman, 2016). Homeless people are affected from all the areas of stigma mention by Goffman, as they are homeless society consider it the defect in their character and count them worthless. Stigmatization suffer by homeless people is not because of their being homeless but because of the mentality of their fellow citizens that homeless people are worthless. Recently homelessness becomes an area of concern for the Australian government, in 2008 Australian Government releases a white paper on homelessness that is The Road Home: A National Approach to Reducing Homelessness. In this strategy government take a three layer approach which is; providing improved services, intervention of experts for the people with high needs prevention at early stage. Both government and service sector understand the problem of homelessness and take measures to solve the problem but support and understanding from public is not there, which makes the situation more critical. Government requires support from community and also balance with laws of community. Research is conducted on communitys attitude towards the homelessness which results in mixed reviews such as choice and laziness and some says because of unaffordable houses (Betterham, Hollows Kollar, n.d.). As per the Barbara Schneider and Chaseten Remillard, treat the homeless people in the same way as you treat the other peoples who have home. Statements of care made by the domiciled peoples include stigma. Their studies reflect that measures taken to reduce the stigma are not as effective as they had to be, therefore they not offer any solution for the problem of stigma (Schneider remillard, 2013). Conclusion: This report contains the perception of homeless people and also the perception of their fellow citizens towards the homeless people. In this we talk brief about the history of beginning of homelessness in Australia from the setup of colonizers. Homeless people usually hide the fact of being homeless due to the attitude of society towards them. When people make statements of care for homeless people it also includes stigma in their statements. Stigmatization suffer by homeless people is not because of their being homeless but because of the attitude of society towards them. Community think people are homeless because of their laziness and choice. Government take preventive measures to reduce the problem of homelessness but public support are not there. References: Homelessness Australia, There is no one definition of homelessness, Retrieved on 29th august from: Schetzer, A. (2015). One in 10 Australians homeless at some point. Journal, (online). Available at: (Accessed 29 August 2015). Batterham, D. Hollows, A. Kolar, V. Attitudes to homelessness in Australia. Journal of hanover welfare services. Donley, A. Jackson, E. (2014). Blending In: The Presentation of Self among Homeless Men in a Gentrifying Environment. Journal of Homelessness.7(1). Chamberlain, C. Johnson, G. Robinson, C.(2014). Homelessness in Australia. Council to homeless person 2014. Schneider, B. Remillard, C. (2013), Caring About Homelessness: How Identity Work Maintains the Stigma of Homelessness. Journal of Homelessness. 33(1): 95 112. crossman, A. (2016). Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. Journal of about education. (online). Available at: . (Accessed 29 August 2015). Phillips, L. (2014), Homelessness: Perception of Causes and Solution. Routledge. Journal of poverty. 19(1); 1-19.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

An Essay in Education free essay sample

Carlyle regards  men without  education  as  mutilated  beings, and with great force insists that to deprive  men and women  of the  blessings of  education  is as bad as it would be to deprive them of eyes or hands. An uneducated  man may a indeed well be compared to a  blind man. The  blind manhas a very imperfect idea of  the world  in which he lives, as compared with those who have the use of their eyes, and the uneducated labour under a similar  inferiority  of mental vision. While the uneducated man has his mind  confined  to the narrow circle of such unintelligent labour as he is capable of performing,  the educated man  can look far back into the past and forward into the future. His mind is full of great events that happened long ago, about which history gives him information, and from his knowledge of the past he is able to form conjectures about the  social and political condition  to which  the world  is progressing. We will write a custom essay sample on An Essay in Education or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The uneducated man sees in the heavenly bodies, that illumine the sky by night,  nothing but innumerable specks of light, some more and some less bright. Any one who has learnt astronomy divides them into fixed stars and planets, and form in his mind a conception of the  planets of  the solar system  rolling round the sun, and of countless other greater suns than ours, each of which may have  its own planetary system, occupying the more distant realms of boundless space. By help of the telescope he can map out the seas and mountains of the moon and of the nearer planets, and the spectroscope tells him the elements of which the stars are composed, The botanist finds the plants at his feet and the trees above his head full of interest. The entomologist, zoologist and geologist enrich the stores of their minds by the study of insects, animals, and fossils. Indeed there is not one of the long list of modern sciences that does not open the eyes of the mind to wonders undreamt of by the uneducated man. Those who have no taste  for science  can enrich their minds with the literary wealth of ancient and modern times, and learn the thoughts of the greatest intellects of  the world  on all manner of subjects. If it is a pleasure to converse with the ordinary men we meet in everyday  life, how much greater is the privilege of reading in  books the  noblest thoughts of such great writers as  Plato, Milton, and Shakespeare. These writers of  world  wide fame, who are not of an age but for all time, are the delight of all  students of literature, and stand apart on the highest pinnacle of glory. But below the very  highest literary rank  there is in every language a large number of excellent writers, whose works are specially adapted to various readers of every age and of every  temperament, so that, whatever our intellectual tastes may be, we are sure to find satisfaction for them in the wide and varied field of  literature. Thus it is that  education, besides being of practical assistance to us in  the struggle of life, enlarges and ennobles the mind and enables us to live as beings endowed with human intellects ought to live.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Free Essays on Ednas Awakening

Edna’s Attempts for Happiness Kate Chopin’s The Awakening deals with a young wife living in common days and times. Where every man works and provides for his family and the woman’s primary focus was the care of her children and other household duties that women were responsible for in those days. The main character of this novel, Edna Pontellier, struggles from day to day to try and establish herself as an individual in the midst of women following tradition and who were satisfied with being a mother and a wife. In every instance that Edna was awaken to what she thrived for out of life, her husband, her friends, or the society in which she dwelled tried to find a way to relinquish her dreams and bring Edna back down to the other common wives and mothers. Through all of the efforts made to keep Edna a commoner, it opened her eyes to what she was aspiring to become and how her children, husband, or friends would not prevent this from occurring. Mrs. Pontellier’s husband, Mr. Leonce Pontellier, was the typical male image in those days. His thoughts were since he provided for the family, the least Edna could do was look after the children. One scenario in the novel when Mr. Pontellier believed his son had a fever, he literally puts Mrs. Pontellier in her place by stating his views the conventions of this time. â€Å" If it was not a mother’s place to look after children, whose on earth was it?† (Chopin 9). Mr. Pontellier resembles John in the story â€Å" A Yellow Wallpaper,† by Charlotte Perkins Gillman, in the sense that both did not want their wives to reach their true potential and to prevent this from occurring they used mind games to try and keep the wives below them. In both cases these acts were the most painful ones, but also pushed both wives into the direction of change and individuality amongst other common individuals. The friends that Mrs. Pontellier associated with were not many, but closet one to her was a man ... Free Essays on Edna's Awakening Free Essays on Edna's Awakening Edna’s Attempts for Happiness Kate Chopin’s The Awakening deals with a young wife living in common days and times. Where every man works and provides for his family and the woman’s primary focus was the care of her children and other household duties that women were responsible for in those days. The main character of this novel, Edna Pontellier, struggles from day to day to try and establish herself as an individual in the midst of women following tradition and who were satisfied with being a mother and a wife. In every instance that Edna was awaken to what she thrived for out of life, her husband, her friends, or the society in which she dwelled tried to find a way to relinquish her dreams and bring Edna back down to the other common wives and mothers. Through all of the efforts made to keep Edna a commoner, it opened her eyes to what she was aspiring to become and how her children, husband, or friends would not prevent this from occurring. Mrs. Pontellier’s husband, Mr. Leonce Pontellier, was the typical male image in those days. His thoughts were since he provided for the family, the least Edna could do was look after the children. One scenario in the novel when Mr. Pontellier believed his son had a fever, he literally puts Mrs. Pontellier in her place by stating his views the conventions of this time. â€Å" If it was not a mother’s place to look after children, whose on earth was it?† (Chopin 9). Mr. Pontellier resembles John in the story â€Å" A Yellow Wallpaper,† by Charlotte Perkins Gillman, in the sense that both did not want their wives to reach their true potential and to prevent this from occurring they used mind games to try and keep the wives below them. In both cases these acts were the most painful ones, but also pushed both wives into the direction of change and individuality amongst other common individuals. The friends that Mrs. Pontellier associated with were not many, but closet one to her was a man ...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Compare Huntington's (1993) argument in The clash of civilizations to Essay

Compare Huntington's (1993) argument in The clash of civilizations to that of Wendell Bell (2004) Humanities' commo - Essay Example There is much credence to this thesis, as a quick glance at history of last millennia will reveal. During ancient times, the chief source of identification came from the tribe or clan to which an individual belonged. Since life was harsh, brutal and short, there was no scope for identification beyond this narrow realm. But as civilization progressed our societies got organized in terms of kingdoms and other smaller autocratic domains. Conflict between two groups could still arise on the basis of differences in cultures or religions or languages, etc, but limitations of geography, locomotive technology and lack of sophisticated organization meant that instances of clashes between civilizations was not frequent. But in the modern world, especially since the industrial revolution, technological advancement (especially in areas of transportation, telecommunication) alongside global economic integration has shrunk the distance between civilizations, making them prone to friction and confl ict. Of the seven major civilizations that Huntington identifies in his essay, the one between Islam and the West has taken center-stage in contemporary world.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Current Events and U.S. Diplomacy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 7

Current Events and U.S. Diplomacy - Essay Example As such, he declared that the United States would not send its troops to assist its allies in maintaining peace and stability in their nations. However, he decreed that he would give weapons, as well as, ant other military support to these nations, especially those fighting against communist rule, such as the Peoples Republic of Vietnam. In addition, he ordered a massive number of American troops stationed in foreign countries to return home, whilst strengthening the military power and stability of their governments to enable self-rule after the departure of American troops (Ambrose, 1989). The diplomatic relationship between the United States and the Republic of Vietnam was gross and appalling. The United States and the Vietnamese were at war. In fact, this war claimed over half a million of American troops stationed in Vietnam to maintain peace and establish a stable government. Many of the US soldiers died in military camps as prisoners of war, while numerous other sustained serious physical injuries before they got a reprieve through the call back plan initiated through Nixon’s Doctrines. This angered many citizens against Nixon’s regime. However, the move adopted by President Nixon to pull back American troops from Vietnam, a process termed as Vietnamisation, helped in restoring the public’s trust in his regime. While pulling out the American troops, the president provided the Vietnam government with skills, tools and weaponry, as well as, necessary financial support to set up a strong military squad in their country. This quest was very succe ssful as it enabled the two countries restore cordial relationships, and maintained peace and stability. The president also got local approval from his citizens for his successful efforts of saving numerous American soldiers (Dallek, 2007). The diplomacy rule adopted by President Nixon enabled establishment of peace and harmony within the Southeast Asia. The triple effects of this move also

Monday, November 18, 2019

Response to short story Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Response to short story - Essay Example Clearly, it is blind approval of the lottery that has made the lottery part and parcel of the villagers’ lives and perpetuates annual murders in the form of ritual performances in the small town. People are often intrinsically resistant to change and have become so submissive to their traditions that they fear a relapse into primordial times upon the stoppage of the lottery. The lottery has transformed the villagers into inhumane creatures that they find it normal to kill so as to satisfy the demands of tradition. Sadly, none of the villagers can give a substantial reason for holding the lottery and having to kill someone whenever they are called upon. This clearly exposes the unconscious self that is driven by the power of tradition rather than the reasoning mind. Suppose the killers would take even a minute to challenge their action perhaps no more deaths in the lottery would be experienced, but no one seems to dare questioning the tradition. To them it seems like their reason for living. Jacksons impugns the villagers’ reverence for this odd tradition by arguing that the villagers are even oblivious of the origin of the ritual that they hold so

Friday, November 15, 2019

First Generation Of Romantic Poets English Literature Essay

First Generation Of Romantic Poets English Literature Essay The Romantic Period encompassed poetic characteristics and visions completely different that anything seen before, rebelling and breaking away from the conservative style of Neoclassicism that preceded it. The first generation of Romantic poets mainly consisted of William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge and William Blake. Characteristics of the period such as mysticism are seen and expressed in their poems. It isnt possible to place a definite date on the start and end of the Romantic Period as there are several conflicting opinions. Generally, it is regarded that the period began in 1798 with the publication of Lyrical Ballads by the forefathers of Romanticism; Samuel Taylor Coleridge and William Wordsworth. Some scholars argue that it began as early as 1789 with Songs of Innocence by William Blake. In terms of its ending, some believe it ended with the start of the Victorian Era in 1837, although some say it died off by 1830. For the purpose of this essay, the consensus is that the period began in 1798 and ended in 1830. With a timeframe established, it is critical to look at historical events of the time as they played a major role in influencing the thoughts and styles of the Romantic poets. The Romantics were on the brink of the Industrial Revolution which was seen as a negative, horrendous thing. The poets emphasized on the importance of nature in life and society, seeing big, smoke expelling factories as monstrous and completely unnatural. They feared that society would become corrupted and evil as it lost contact with nature and further integrated to an industrialized life. The other main influence they had was the French Revolution which helps explain where some of the new ideologies and feelings came from. There was little to no expression of free speech in France and poverty was widespread. Resources were not distributed appropriately as the nobles lived in great luxury while lower classes starved. Naturally, the romantics supported the revolution hoping for social and political change and i mprovement in France. Later on, with Napoleons rule and aggressive conquests they turned against the French movement but kept and embraced the spirit of revolution. The revolution and their fear of being invaded made them truly appreciate what they had. Nature was turned to to escape from the real world and its predicaments; it was a heavenly gateway to peace of mind. Nature then became one of the most commonly used and important themes, references and characteristics in romantic poetry as it came to symbolize Gods pure creation of grace. The most important Romantic poets can be classified into two groups, the first generation and the second generation. The first generation of poets that created the basis for the later ones included were Samuel Coleridge (1772-1834), William Blake (1757-1827) and William Wordsworth (1770-1850) Charles Lamb (1775-1834), Jane Austen (17751817), and Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832). Charles Lamb is most famous for his poem The Old Familiar Faces and his essay Essays of Elia. At one point he was mentally ill and spent some time in a psychiatric hospital. His sister went insane and stabbed their mother to death, greatly affecting his writing for a long time and forcing him to take care of her. Jane Austen is most commonly known for her novels Sense and Sensibility and Pride and Prejudice. Her novels were not accepted very well and didnt bring her much fame while she was alive, but now she has been accepted as one of the best authors of the English language. Northanger Abby was published once s he had passed away and sold excellently for a year. Sir Walter Scott is known for his poems like The Lady of The Lake and his ballads. He focused and showed an interest for Scottish history in his works. Scott was read all around the world during his time including readers in parts of Europe and North America. The most important second generation poets included Lord Byron (1788-1824), Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822), and John Keats (1795-1821). All three produced important literary works despite that they died so young at the ages of 36, 30 and 26, respectively. Keats was the most famous of the three, praised for his collection of odes including Ode to a Nightingale. Like Austen, Keats was not widely recognized during his lifetime and then his works picked up popularity after he passed away. Shelley was a master of poetry who wrote Queen Mab as well as the dramatic plays The Cenci and Prometheus Unbound. He married the writer Mary Shelley who wrote the extremely famous novel Frankenstein and also helped edit and revise his works. Among Lord Byrons most popular poems are She Walks in Beauty and Don Juan. Lord Byron was somewhat of a wild man, getting involved in several romantic affairs and large debts. He fought for the Greeks in the Greek War of Independence which made him be seen as a n ational hero by them. Eventually he died from a terrible fever.

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Rotten dot Com :: essays research papers

I have to say rotten dot com is not my type of website, but it did catch my attention. Even if you are disturbed or not attracted to something, you should give it a chance. You never know what to expect especially when you see, "Rotten dot com collects images and information from many sources to present the viewer with a truly unpleasant experience" on the main page. The content of the site is different than any other website that I have seen, but the form and layout is very common among websites. Rotten dot com actually reminds of a newspaper's layout. On the main page there are several links, some on the left side, and some going down the bottom of the page. These links can be related to the subtitles of newspapers which lead you to the inside story. Being that the website is easily viewed and understandable, rotten dot com is a very well designed website. All the links show what topics can be viewed. Then after clicking on the specific link you want, a header page is opened. For example, if you click on the link "Celebrity Morgue", you will see a page with two skeletons on it, and the title overlapping them. Below the title and skeletons is a list of people who you can view dead bodies of. Under the photos of the bodies, there are brief descriptions of how each individual person died. Another one of these links is called "famous." The famous link takes you to a page similar to the Celebrity Morgue page, where there are several sub links on the page. With these links you can view rare photographs. Some of these photos contain Richard Nixon meeting Elvis Presley, and a picture of David Duchonovy almost nude, which appeared on the cover of a European magazine. Another picture is of Nancy Reagan sitting on Mr. T's lap, as he is dressed like Santa Claus. As I previously stated, the form of this website is extremely basic. It contains a lot of links to other pages, which consist of a few odd and disturbing photos. Each page contains a few cartoon pictures, which describe and are related to that specific title of the page. A nice link to click is the "mug shots" link. You can view and take a look at famous actors', criminals', and professional athletes' mug shots. Some mug shots that I think are good are Pee Wee Herman because he got arrested for masturbating, Charles Barkley because he broke a man's nose in a bar fight, and Al Pacino as young hoodlum growing up in Brooklyn.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

A Study of the Impact of Health Care Management and Health Care Delivery on the Health Status of Gabonese

This research paper is aimed to show the impact of the health care management and health care delivery on the health status of the Gabonese.The study, impact assessment of health care management and health care delivery profile will builds up from previous work and is expected to serve as a future building block that advances the conceptualization and practical understanding of how to evaluate the competence of health care management and delivery in Gabon.Throughout Gabon, there is a growing consensus about the nature and importance of health care management and delivery competence a necessary component to accessible, responsive and high quality health care (Gerardi, 2004).Nevertheless, the pursuit of competence in health care management and delivery institutions is somehow constrained partly by the health industries’ deficiency of a systematic procedures and instruments for assessing competence in relation to health care status.The health care management and delivery will be gauged on its presence, quality level as well as its contribution to good health and health care of the entire population of Gabon.The particular aims of the research are to develop an analytic framework for accessing the impact of health care management and health care delivery in the health care delivery organizations, point out specific indicators that can be used in connection to the framework as well as assessing the importance, feasibility and practical implication of the framework and its indicators.The health status indicators in Gabon will mainly be focused on quality of provision of primary health care, general mortality rates for both adults and children and the effects of health care management and delivery on average life expectancy of the people of Gabon (MSH, 1991).Problem of the StatementTo study the impact of health care management and health care delivery in Gabon, the research team will apply various methods to reach these objectives.   The research team will so licit inputs from individuals with wide expertise on issues related to health care management and delivery.These individuals will share information, insights as well as opinions throughout the research period on ongoing basis through meetings and written commentaries.   The research team will also receive inputs from a wide range of key informants in private and public sector who have knowledge on health care management and health care delivery in Gabon.Further, the research will also include inputs from workshops with the public in different zones.   Finally, the research team will make visits to best practice settings in the health care delivery institutions that have been recognized by the public for their creative and innovation in the health care delivery.Visits will be made to both public and private health care facilities.   The sites to be visited should be varied in size, population served, auspices as well as history and scope of health care management and delivery c ompetence activities.   These visits will offer opportunities to get experience-based practical views about the impact of health care management and health care delivery in Gabon.The research intends to use an interactive process in developing the research findings.   Initially, there will be preliminary assessment of guidelines and initial set of indicators’ needs to be developed in literature review.This will be followed closely by refining the preliminary framework, set of indicators and related assumptions.   This will be done by considering the feedback from the key informants, input from the professionals in the health care industry as well as findings from site visits.Finally, the framework and indicators resulting from this refinement will further be revised based on the wide range of inputs from the experts as well as various persons contacted during the site visits.   The final report of the findings of the research will be compiled and presented for analysi s and evaluation.   For this research purposes, the health care management and delivery will be referred to as behaviors, policies and attitudes that combine in a system among professionals and/or agency in agency in facilitating the above to work effectively in improving the health status of the Gabonese. To develop tools to access the impact in the context of health care, the research team is to concentrate on organizational level only.The organizational structure in health management and delivery is an integral part of systematic patient-centred and has the momentum to improve the access to care, quality of care as well as health outcomes (MSH, 1991).The organization normally serves as the driving force in the development and maintenance of individual health care provider competence by providing the managers, policies and systems that support the experiences they encounter.   Moreover organizational culture affects the service delivery and also serves as a mechanism for maint aining quality health care delivery.Historical Perspective of Health Care Management and DeliveryResearch and other studies have indicated that late neo-natal deaths are attributed to perinatally related experiences.   The survival of infants at 24-27 weeks gestation depends on the effectiveness of maternal and/or prenatal care (Weir, et al, 1993).   Although Gabon’s expenditure on health care provision is higher, infant survival rates are low relative to other developing countries.Lower child maternal rates in Gabon can be avoided by improving the policy of health care delivery mainly by focusing on process issues. Recent studies show that prenatal maternal rates in Gabon are approximately 82 per every 1,000 total births and there is gradual increase in rate over time (Weir, et al, 1993).Prenatal deaths are mostly caused by asphyxia, immaturity and macerated stillbirth.   The prevalence of low birth weight babies, multiple pregnancies and admitted patients are some of the major reasons for high mortality rates, particularly in Gabon.To reduce the current high prenatal maternal rates in Gabon, public education on danger signs of prolonged labour and regular training of health professionals as well as improving neo-dental facilities are very important.   Recent studies on global prenatal mortality figures show that between 6 and 7 million prenatal deaths occur for every 132 million births per year (MSH, 1991).It also shows that the dominant causes of those prenatal deaths were mainly caused by poor maternal health, early child bearing and most importantly, lack of appropriate and quality health delivery.   Although technology has provided medical service providers with life-saving practices, almost â…“ of mothers have no access to services during pregnancy and also do not have access to service for childbirth.Infectious diseases such as pneumonia, influenza, malaria as well as tuberculosis are the main causes of mortality in the 20th centu ry in Gabon (Gerardi, 2004).   In the same vein recently measles, cholera as well as intestinal infections are continually and regularly causing mortality in Gabon and many other parts of the world.There has been substantial reduction of prevalence and impact of the above-mentioned diseases due to current improved control of environment, personal hygiene, medical facilities, proper management of human waste as well as dispensation including proper vaccination.Due to the laissez-faires attitude of the populace and government in Gabon maternal health and infant mortality has been a very hot issue.   These problems are considered to occur as a result of ignorance, lack of commitment, corruption, illiteracy and apathy among medical health care delivery institutions.For the health of mothers and their new born in Gabon, racial differences play an integral part towards immunity to medical situations.   West Africans and their descendants normally have resistance from malaria and hoo kworms and to be specific, in the case of malaria, West Africans’ red cells do not have the Duffy antigen (Weir, et al, 1993). This antigen normally acts as a receptor where parasites attain entrance to the same.  Moreover, a relative resistance to more acute types of P. falcipanum such as cerebral malaria is normally displayed by haemoglobin carriers such as Sickle-cell traits and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenate deficiency.   Maternal antibodies protect the child from malaria in utero and initially after birth.   Research and other studies emanating from Gabon shows that malaria is the highest cause of mortality all over the country.On the other hand, measles infections which show symptoms such as rash and fever normally cannot be differentiated from malaria.   A lot of disability to children in Gabon in the recent past can be attributed to measles.   Polio is also a major disease condition in Gabon.   This is due to the many disabilities and deaths it has caus ed.   Survivors of polio always tend to turn out to be beggars, crippled and handicapped as well as devastated by the impact of poliomyelitis.In Gabon, another cause of high death rates is Diptheria.   In mothers and infants tetanus is also a major cause of mortality (Gerardi, 2004).   This is because they are exposed to bacterial infection at childbirth as well as wound injury.   Since this normally caused lock jaw and seizures in patients it results to high death rates.These diseases can be prevented by the introduction of health vaccination in Gabon.   Further, septic abortion, puerperal fever as well as threatened abortion which normally lead to streptococci entering the uterus at childbirth hence causing endomteritis is also a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in Gabon.   Ã‚  In short, HIV/AIDS, malaria, syphilis, gonorrhea, tuberculosis, measles among others are presenting a very challenging issue in general health status of the populace in Gabon.Main concern affecting the Health CareLack of education among women is one of the major factors concerning effective delivery of health care.   This is because it leads to individuals not to sufficiently understand the danger signs of adverse medical conditions as well as not being capable of following the prescription.Further, there has been discrimination in the provision of health care in terms of how wealthy one, is poverty status, race as well as nationality.   Also in the rapid increase in population, the health care costs are also increasing and this raises concern about the quality of health care delivery and financing, that is, in the case of public hospitals in Gabon.Changing facilities, participation of women labour force and increased divorce cases leads to little care to individuals with disabilities by relatives and thus increasing demand for the government design public and social program to take care of the affected (Weir, et al, 1993).   Also, diseases such as HIV /AIDS among other incurable diseases are of major concern to the health care fraternity.The impact of inadequacyPoor governance and in particular in health care management and health care delivery can lead to poor health status among the Gabonese people.   This is because it would lead to corruption where the medical facilities and drugs will be embezzled by some individuals for their own beneficial gains.   Also, inadequate governance can lead to discrimination in the provision of health care in terms of various individual orientation (Gerardi, 2004).These orientations can include economic status, level of literacy, ethnicity among many others.   This can in turn affect the general socio-economical development of the people of Gabon.ConclusionPoor health management and health care delivery impacts negatively on health status of any given populace.   In this modern era in Gabon rapid population increase as well as increased environmental disease conditions exposures the pros pects of population health in Gabon could be an acute national health public issue.   Serious and targeted health care management and health care delivery planning should be put into play to prevent medical situations catastrophe.This can be done well with first of all evaluating the current health status situation in Gabon.   Secondly it can also be done by designing best strategies towards effective prevention and management of the outcomes. It is critical that a concrete and realistic health care management and health care delivery policies should be put in place.   This can result to a remarkable improvement of health status of the Gabonese.ReferenceGerardi, D., (2004).   Using Medication Techniques to Manage Conflicts and Create Healthy Work Environments.   American Association of Critical Care Nurses Clinical Issues. 15.Management Sciences for Health (MSH). (1991). International drug price indicator guide.Weir, M. J., and Ogundiran, A. (1993). A Syndrome based STD su rveillance system for Nigeria. [Abstract]. In: 9th International Conference on AIDS/4th STD World Congress, Volume 1, Berlin, Germany.

Friday, November 8, 2019

The Similarities of Alfred Hitchcock and Edward Hopper Essay Essays

The Similarities of Alfred Hitchcock and Edward Hopper Essay Essays The Similarities of Alfred Hitchcock and Edward Hopper Essay Paper The Similarities of Alfred Hitchcock and Edward Hopper Essay Paper Essay Topic: Rear Window Alfred Hitchcock. besides known as. â€Å"The Maestro of Suspense† . was a manager to a assortment of award winning movies. Many Hitchcock films will be perceptibly inspired by legion pictures. including the work of iconic creative person Edward Hopper. Hopper. born in New York. was good known for his realist pictures. Comparing the pictures and movies. one will see the similarities displayed between the two. Alfred Hitchcock and Edward Hopper are linked by making an eerie temper through their usage of illuming. composing. and point of view. Both Hitchcock and Hopper tend to utilize dark illuming with shadows every bit good as insulating a little group of people seen from an ‘outside looking in’ point of position. Edward Hopper is able to capture suspense in his pictures and he does this through his usage of illuming. He casts shadows and darkness in peculiar pictures in order to convey the temper he wishes to accomplish. In his most celebrated picture. â€Å"Nighthawks† . Hopper uses shadows as a technique to make a unusual feeling for the scene. The lone visible radiation in the picture appears to be coming from the diner itself. It casts shadows on the outside which makes the viewer admiration what will go on next. Because it is dark. there is something eerie about why these people are up so tardily at dark. Similar to Hopper. Hitchcock uses cryptic shadows to make this peculiar temper. This is seen through a still image of his film â€Å"Rear Window† . During this scene. the chief character Jeff. who is a wheel chair bound photojournalist. is confronted by Lars Thorwald. a going jewellery salesman who Jeff believes murdered person. Lars shows up in Jeff’s flat and the lighting dramatis personae upon him is dark. His figure is clearly at that place but the shadows cover his face wholly. which helps to demo this cryptic. eerie temper. Unlike Hopper. Hitchcock has an advantage of puting sound into the scene which adds to the ambiance of uncertainness. If it had been twenty-four hours clip or igniter in the room. the scene would non hold portrayed the same temper. This first-class usage of shadows by both Hopper and Hitchcock create the ghostliness they are both good known for. Alfred Hitchcock tended to concentrate on a little group of chief characters in each scene to make suspense. This was seen in his film â€Å"Vertigo† . The chief character. Scottie. is a retired investigator and was hired by Gavin Elster to follow his married woman. Madeline Elster. As the secret plan thickens. Madeline purportedly jumps off the roof of the church and kills herself. Scottie meets a new adult female. Judy Barton. who has an eldritch resemblance to Madeline. The scene in the still image is when Scottie is recognizing that Judy pretended to be Madeline so Gavin could slay his married woman and people would merely presume she was brainsick. As Scottie realizes this. the camera position is focused on merely him. By insulating him entirely. Hitchcock has enabled the audience to calculate the secret plan out aboard Scottie. This flooring disclosure creates an eerie feeling and gets the intended temper across. Like Hitchcock. Hopper tends to utilize the technique of insulating his characters. In the picture â€Å"Automat† . there is a adult female sitting by herself in a diner. Although non given off of the first feeling. the picture can give off an eerie temper. For illustration. her facial look is clean and she is submerging in the darkness from the back land. The image presents a dead silence which helps show the intended temper. Hopper had a inclination to paint his pictures as an foreigner position to construct a sense of inscrutability. In his picture â€Å"Nighthawk† . Hopper illustrates four people on the interior of a coffeehouse. The spectator is able to see all of the people in the scene because of the point of position. The adult male on the far left has his dorsum turned so one can non construe his temper ; although his caput is down which makes the spectator infer he is believing. The miss and male child sitting following to each other may be a twosome. but the spectator can non cognize for certain. The waiter may hold a drink in his manus or it could be something more leery. but because the spectator can non see his custodies they can non be certain of what the object is. By being able to see everyone in the picture and being able to analyse each character. the temper conveys eeriness because the spectator has unanswered inquiries and enigma. Hitchcock besides uses an ‘outside looking in’ point of position in the film â€Å"Rear Window† . The secret plan of the film is based around the chief character watching people through his flat window. In the still image. Jeff. the chief character. tickers as his neighbour goes in and out of his flat and so takes knifes out of his bag. If the spectator was in the room with the neighbour. they would be able to state what was traveling on. By being on the exterior. it leaves the spectator thinking which so creates a cliff-hanging. eerie temper. Edward Hopper and Alfred Hitchcock are un-doubtfully similar when it comes to inside informations. Hitchcock may non be a painter. but his work has been influenced by pictures. The comparing between both of Hitchcock and Hopper’s work shows that art has an influence throughout all the different types there are. The two creative persons create different chef-doeuvres. but the similarities between the two aid separate the eerie temper.

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

The Impact of Raising Taxes on essays

The Impact of Raising Taxes on essays The Advantages and Disadvantages of Increasing Cigarette Tax Rate 1 The Effect of Increasing Tax on US Cigarette 2 - Demand 3 - Supply 4 Government and Cigarette Tax 5 Own price elastic of Tobacco 7 Cigarette advertising and promotion 9 What is the right level of tax? 12 Cigarette industry and Oligopoly 12 References 14 The Impact of Raising Taxes on Cigarette This paper is primarily focused on the impact of price increases on cigarette that have a positive effect on the U.S. economics. According to Federation of Tax Administrators (FTD) 2002, there is an increasing excise tax on US cigarette in many states, which affect directly to consumers behavior and supplier. Many critics believe that the U.S. government may address the effectiveness of the excise taxes as a regulatory instrument. On the other hand, the government may use excise taxation by increasing tax rate of US cigarette as a tool for gaining more revenues and saving cost of financial part of medicates and national health care. A significant impact of proposed cigarette price increases is a big economic issue that will impact on every side: consumers, suppliers, and the government. One of economists name, Eric Lindblom, from the National Center for Tobacco indicated that an increases cigarette tax, it would directly affect to the price of cigarette. In other words, the price of cigarette will increase causing the impact in the supply and demand of cigarette in the market. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Increasing Cigarette Tax Rate State governments generate revenues. ( Every state that has significantly increased its cigarette tax has ...

Monday, November 4, 2019

Hardware and Software Selection Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Hardware and Software Selection - Essay Example This meant making sure there were no errors. First there was a trial balance. It was a way of ensuring the values at the end of the period were equal. This was called debits equal credits. The next step was to proceed with what saw called closing of the books. This process made it possible to create two main documents. First was the income statement the income statement told if the business made money or lost money was referred to as the processing cycle. Computer Technology Next came the impact of computer information systems. It became necessary to introduce a new concept. The new concept is called modules. The computer made it possible to avoid errors in the transfer process between cycles. Today, many systems move the information immediately and automatically from recording to impact on the reporting result. The computer system is made up of five parts (O’Leary T.J. and L.L 2006).(1)People (2)procedures (3)Software (4)hardware (5)data. It is now possible for people to work in different segments of the accounting documentation because of the functional modules introduced. Some modules can be invoicing, accounts receivable accounts payable payroll general ledger. The type of business determines the level of complexity. The emphasis here will have to be on people. We must consider who will be operating it and who will be using the output information. Next we turn to the software.

Friday, November 1, 2019

Assessment on the Effectiveness of Environmental Management in the UAE Assignment

Assessment on the Effectiveness of Environmental Management in the UAE - Assignment Example Being another fundamental element of the â€Å"Right of Environment†, in UAE, the people/citizens, whether directly impacted or not from any environmental nuisances/problems, have the possibility to ask the relevant public authorities to stop the problem and also to open a case at the courts demanding the prevention/stopping the environmental nuisances. This possibility plays an effective role for the protection and enhancement of the environmental quality in UAE. Just like any other problems and disturbances, people have the right to report and question why an environmental issue is not being corrected. If they do not get help, the citizens can use the legal channels or courts to have the problems sorted out. If the concept of â€Å"aim† is to be defined as the â€Å"idealistic end-points† to be achieved/reached and the concept of â€Å"objective/target† is the quantifiable/measurable/concrete end-point† to be achieved/reached in numerical terms, then it can be stated that the aims and the objectives/targets of environment management of emirates and municipalities are determined in UAE. â€Å"The command and control strategy† including the functions of â€Å"enforcement of environmental rules and norms† and also â€Å"compliance management† by the federal government has been effectively regulated and put into implementation in UAE. â€Å"The command and control strategy† including the functions of â€Å"enforcement of environmental rules and norms† and also â€Å"compliance management† by the emirates has been effectively regulated and put into implementation in UAE. The other important environmental management strategy, â€Å"voluntary compliance strategy† (such as â€Å"the British Standard 7750†, â€Å"Eco-Management and Auditing Regulation† of the EU) has been regulated and put into implementation in UAE. â€Å"The Economic and Financial Tools of Environmental

Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Development of Collective Bargaining in the United States Research Paper

Development of Collective Bargaining in the United States - Research Paper Example Collective bargaining policies in the United States have played a very important role over the years. There were numerous efforts that were made for the development of collective bargaining by the way of formation of various legislations and labor unions. For the development of collective bargaining in the United States, there had been a lot of conflicts that were determined to arise between the employers and the employees. There were conflicts relating to the rights of the employees, management and the unions in the organizations. There were also conflicts that were viewed which accounted for increasing wages and salaries that were demanded by the employees. During this conflicting period, managers/employers were given full right to dismiss the workers/employees which was very objectionable for the employees (Andrews, 1981). Collective bargaining in the past was a major source of challenge for the US. It was more of a despicable situation when employers and employees had to cope up with the practice of this concept. However, the employees seem to suffer the most at all times because of the exclusion of collective bargaining in the US organizations (Mills, 1981). However, with the passage of time, the US has been able to adopt and practice collective bargaining and follow liberalization in the wage structures of the employees. The American labor policies have been formulated as per the company standards. The governing laws of the US in the organizational context have strived to keep pace with growth and maintain competitiveness with the organizations of different countries. The governing principles of US are now focusing towards incorporating collective bargaining at a whole new level in order to improve the economy of the country by a considerable extent. The country is planning to incorporate collective bargaining in different sectors that may include education sector and governmental agencies among others

Monday, October 28, 2019

Unemployment statistics in US Essay Example for Free

Unemployment statistics in US Essay Unemployment refers to a situation whereby a person who is able and willing to work is currently without a job. The total number of employed people plus the number of unemployed persons who are seeking work is referred to as labor force (US Bureau of Labour Statistics, 2010). The participation rate is the labor force divided by the total number of working age population that is not institutionalized (US Department of Labour, 2010). The unemployment level is the difference between the labor force and the total number of people who are currently employed. The unemployment rate is the level of unemployed divided by the total number of working population. There are different types of unemployment types in the overall macro-economy. They include frictional unemployment, structural unemployment, natural rate of unemployment and demand deficient unemployment. Frictional unemployment reflects the time taken by individuals to find and get settled in their new jobs. Structural unemployment is the difference between the skills and other attributes possessed by the labor force and what the employers actually demand. This type of unemployment considers employees who are undergoing re-training in order to start a new job as being unemployed. It is usually increased by technological changes. Natural rate of unemployment is the sum total of frictional and structural unemployment. It is considered to be the lowest rate of unemployment that is expected to be achieved by a stable economy. Demand deficient unemployment is the level of unemployment which is beyond the natural rate unemployment. Causes of unemployment According to Keynesian economics, unemployment results from deficit in effective demand for both goods and services in an economy (US Bureau of Labour Statistics, 2010). Other schools of thought attribute unemployment to structural problems and inefficiencies which are common in the labor markets. Classical economics attribute unemployment to rigidities in labor markets resulting from external environment such as unionization of workers, taxes, minimum wages and other factors that may limit hiring of new employees (US Department of Labour, 2010). Other economists view unemployment as a voluntary choice of the unemployed and the time it takes them to find a new job also referred to as frictional unemployment. Efficiency wages and sticky wages are seen by behavioral economists to be a cause of unemployment. Unemployment level in US Unemployment in 27 US states was reported to have increased in February 2010 while seven states reported a drop in unemployment. There was an increase in unemployment in the state of Mississippi by 0. 4 percent (highest increase). The unemployment in Detroit fell from 15. 3 to 14. 8. The unemployment nationally by February 2010 was reported by Labor Department to be 9. 7 percent. However, job layoffs were fewer than previously anticipated (Trading Economics, 2010). Since the onset of recession in December 2007, 8. 4 million jobs had been lost by March 2010. The US official unemployment was reported to be 9. 5% in June 2010. This accounted for about 14. 6 million unemployed Americans. The black teens were leading with unemployment of 39. 9% Asians had the lowest unemployment rate of 7. 7%. The total number of officially unemployed and the hidden unemployment (29. 1 million) account for 18. 2% of the labor force. The graph below illustrates the levels of unemployment in US between 1999 and 2009.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

the awakening :: essays research papers

Music Throughout The Awakening, the manner in which each of the characters uses and understands music gives us a sense of Edna’s ideological alignment in relation to the novel’s other characters. Additionally, Edna’s exploration of music and her meditations upon its significance enable her own (visual) art to flourish. Edna first learns about the emotive power of music from Mademoiselle Reisz. Whereas Adà ¨le Ratignolle’s piano playing had merely conjured sentimental pictures for Edna, the older woman’s playing stirs new feelings and probes unexplored emotional territories in her. Mademoiselle Reisz uses music as a form of artistic expression, not merely as a way of entertaining others. In contrast to Mademoiselle Reisz, the Farival twins play the piano purely for the sake of the gathered company. The twins’ association with the Virgin Mary, and, hence, with a destiny of chaste motherliness, links them thematically with notions of how Victorian wo men should behave. Their piano playing—entertaining but not provocative, pleasant but not challenging—similarly serves as the model for how women should use art. It becomes clear that, for a Victorian woman, the use of art as a form of self-exploration and self-articulation constitutes a rebellion. Correspondingly, Mademoiselle Reisz’s use of music situates her as a nonconformist and a sympathetic confidante for Edna’s awakening. The difference Edna detects between the piano-playing of Mademoiselle Reisz and Adà ¨le Ratignolle seems also to testify to Edna’s emotional growth. She reaches a point in her awakening in which she is able to hear what a piece of music says to her, rather than idly inventing random pictures to accompany the sounds. Thus, music, or Edna’s changing reactions to it, also serves to help the reader locate Edna in her development. Children Images of children, and verbal allusions to them, occur throughout the novel. Edna herself is often metaphorically related to a child. In her awakening, she is undergoing a form of rebirth as she discovers the world from a fresh, childlike, perspective. Yet Edna’s childishness has a less admirable side. Edna becomes self-absorbed, she disregards others, and she fails to think realistically about the future or to meditate on her the consequences of her actions. Ultimately, Edna’s thoughts of her children inspire her to commit suicide, because she realizes that no matter how little she depends on others, her children’s lives will always be affected by society’s opinion of her. Moreover, her children represent an obligation that, unlike Edna’s obligation to her husband, is irrevocable.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Sam Shepard Essay -- Biography Biographies Essays

Sam Shepard Sam Shepard is a contemporary American playwright and actor whose plays deal with modern social concerns. He was influenced by Beat Generation writers such as Allen Ginsberg who rebelled against a society of economic affluence and social conformity following World War II. Insatiable consumerism became a central trait of postwar life, "driven by the mass media, advertising, and generous loan terms" ("Sam Shepard"). From this atmosphere the Beat Writers came forward to declare their alienation from what they saw as the "creed of suburban conformity in favor of what Ginsberg called ‘the lost America of love’" ("Sam Shepard"). It was from this generation of writers that Shepard was inspired to address the issues of alienation from society, loss of identity and the deterioration of the family structure. The themes explored by Shepard may be described as "the picture of America torn between the idealistic values and painful realities of a frontier paved over by a parking lot" ("Sam Shepard") . In other words, progress and change are destroying the collective values of America as the former replaces the latter. Having grown up in the 50’s and 60’s, a period of social metamorphosis, Shepard must have observed for himself that the apple-pie family of popular culture was far different from the changing face of society’s real life family whose members struggle for identity and connection. As television presented an idealization of suburban family life, reality suggested otherwise. Shepard is known for his oblique story lines, slightly mysterious characters, and use of surreal elements with images of popular culture ("Sam Shepard"). The majority of his plays deal with the betrayal of the American dream, the search for ... ...iculate enough to compose his thoughts, and Austin does not have the adventurous spirit to survive in the desert. Therefore, they realize their identities are not found in each other. The characters in each of these plays grapple for identity and connection, which Shepard recognizes as true in modern American families. As they assert themselves, family tension is the result and the Brady Bunch dream is only that: a dream. Works Cited Gilman, Richard. Sam Shepard: Seven Plays. Introduction. New York: Bantam Books, 1981. xi-xxvii. "Sam Shepard." Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia 99. Microsoft Corporation. 1993-1998. Shepard, Sam. Sam Shepard: Seven Plays. New York: Bantam Books, 1981. Williams, Megan. "Nowhere Man and the Twentieth-Century Cowboy: Images of Identity and American History in Sam Shepard’s True West." Modern Drama. 40 (Spring 1997): 57-73.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

The Political Economy of International Trade

The Political Economy of International Trade Chapter Outline OPENING CASE: Why Are Global Food Prices Soaring? INTRODUCTION INSTRUMENTS OF TRADE POLICY Tariffs Subsides Country Focus: Subsidized Wheat Production in Japan Import Quotas and Voluntary Export Restraints Local Content Requirements Administrative Polices Antidumping Policies Management Focus: U. S. Magnesium Seeks Protection THE CASE FOR GOVERNMENT INTERVENTION Political Arguments for Intervention Country Focus: Trade in Hormone-Treated Beef Economic Arguments for Intervention THE REVISED CASE FOR FREE TRADE Retaliation and Trade War Domestic Politics DEVELOPMENT OF THE WORLD TRADING SYSTEM From Smith to the Great Depression 1947-1979: GATT, Trade Liberalization, and Economic Growth 1980-1993: Protectionist Trends The Uruguay Round and the World Trade Organization WTO: Experience to Date The Future of the WTO: Unresolved Issues and the Doha Round Country Focus: Estimating the Gains from Trade for America FOCUS ON MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS Trade Barriers and Firm Strategy Policy Implications SUMMARY CRITICAL THINKING AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS CLOSING CASE: Agricultural Subsidies Learning Objectives 1. Describe the policy instruments used by governments to influence international trade flows. 2. Understand why governments sometimes intervene in international trade. 3. Articulate the arguments against strategic trade policy. 4. Describe the development of the world trading system and the current trade issues. 5. Explain the implications for managers of developments in the world trading system. Chapter Summary This chapter begins with a discussion of the six main instruments of trade policy, including tariffs, subsidies, import quotas, voluntary export estraints, local content requirements, and administrative policies. This section is followed by a discussion of the merits of government intervention into international trade. The author provides a balanced view of this difficult issue. The second half of the chapter focuses on the development of the global trading system. A historical context is provided, along with a view of the global trading system as it exis ts today. The author acquaints the reader with the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT) and the World Trade Organization. Opening Case: Why Are Global Food Prices Soaring? Summary The opening case examines why global food prices are rising significantly. For more than two decades, improvements in agricultural productivity and output have contributed to lower food prices, but in 2007, the price of wheat was double its price of just a few months earlier, and the price of corn had risen some 60 percent. Two explanations for the phenomenon are increased demand, and the effects of tariffs and subsidies for bio-fuels. Discussion of the case can revolve around the following questions: QUESTION 1: Food prices have risen dramatically since 2007. Reflect on the reasons for the price increase, and discuss the implications of higher prices for consumers in developed and developing countries. ANSWER 1: For decades, consumers have enjoyed the benefits of increased productivity and output in the global food industry. In 2007, however, everything changed. The price of wheat reached its highest point ever, and the price of corn rose 60 percent over its 2006 price. Two factors contributed to this situation. The first was the increased demand for food from China and India. The second factor involved tariffs and subsidies for bio-fuels. Farmers in the European Union and in the United States are currently the recipients of subsidies for the production of crops used in bio-fuels. As a result, land that might be used for growing food is being converted to bio-fuel crops, pushing up prices on food. While some experts believe that sugar cane may be a better product for bio-fuel production than corn, tariffs on imported sugar cane effectively are keeping the crop out of the market. While all consumers are feeling the pain of higher food prices, the situation is especially dire for consumers in poor countries where calorie intake could be reduced by as much as -8 percent by 2020. QUESTION 2: How has demand for bio-fuels affected the price of food? What are the implications of this trend? Reflect on the role of government in pushing prices up. What role do tariffs and subsidies play in the situation? In your opinion, should the governments of the United States and the European Union bear any responsibility for bringing food prices back down? ANSWER 2: In an effort to slow global warming, both the European Union and the United States have adopted policies designed to increase the production of ethanol and bio-diesel. The policies involve providing subsidies to farmers. The net effect of the subsidies is to encourage farmers to produce less food, and more crops that can be used in bio-fuel production. The situation is exacerbated by high tariffs on alternative products that can be used for bio-fuel production – particularly sugar cane. Most students will recognize that the combined effect of the subsidies and tariffs are creating a difficult situation for consumers, while at the same time protecting producers. Some students may note the irony of the situation. Consumers, hit by higher prices at the pump are putting more pressure on companies to develop cheaper and more environmentally friendly sources of energy, but in doing so are actually contributing to higher prices at the grocery store. Some students may wonder whether it makes more sense to consider non-food related sources of energy. Honda Motors is currently developing a car that runs on Teaching Tip: To expand this discussion, consider {http://www. businessweek. com/bwdaily/dnflash/content/may2008/db20080513_317940. htm? chan=search}, {http://www. usinessweek. com/globalbiz/content/may2008/gb20080520_439607. htm? chan=search}, and {http://www. businessweek. com/magazine/content/08_19/b4083026413508. htm? chan=search}. Video Note: There are two iGlobes directly related to this case. The first is Supply, Price of Food Increase Hardship for World’s Poor, and the second is Agricultural Problems Lead to Farmer Suicides in India. Chapter Outline with Lecture Notes, Video Notes, a nd Teaching Tips INTRODUCTION A) This chapter explores the political reality of international trade. Free trade refers to a situation where a government does not attempt to restrict what its citizens can buy from another country or what they can sell to another country. While many nations are nominally committed to free trade, they tend to intervene in international trade to protect the interests of politically important groups. B) The major objective of this chapter is to describe how political realities have shaped, and continue to shape, the international trading system. INSTRUMENTS OF TRADE POLICY A) In this section, the text reviews seven main instruments of trade policy. These are: tariffs, subsidies, import quotas, voluntary export restraints, local content requirements, antidumping policies and administrative policies. Tariffs B) A tariff is a tax levied on imports (or exports) that effectively raises the cost of imported (or exported) products relative to domestic products. Specific tariffs are levied as a fixed charge for each unit of a good imported, while ad valorem tariffs are levied as a proportion of the value of the imported good. The important thing to understand about a tariff is who suffers and who gains. The government gains, because the tariff ncreases government revenues. Domestic producers gain, because the tariff affords them some protection against foreign competitors by increasing the cost of imported foreign goods. Consumers lose since they must pay more for certain imports. C) Thus, tariffs are unambiguously pro-producer and anti-consumer, and tariffs reduce the overall efficiency of the world economy. Subsidies D) A subsidy is a government payment to a domestic producer. By lowering costs, subsidies help domestic producers in two ways: they help producers compete against low-cost foreign imports and they help producers gain export markets. However, many subsidies are not that successful at increasing the international competitiveness of domestic producers. Moreover, consumers typically absorb the costs of subsidies. Country Focus: Subsidized Wheat Production in Japan Summary This feature explores the subsidies Japan continues to pay its wheat farmers. Tens of thousands of Japanese farmers continue to grow wheat despite the fact that the wheat grown in North America, Argentina, and Australia is far cheaper and of superior quality. The Japanese farmers stay in business thanks to the hefty subsidies paid by the Japanese government. As a result, wheat prices in Japan are substantially higher than they would be if a free market were allowed to operate. Suggested Discussion Questions 1. Who are the winners and who are the losers from Japanese wheat subsidies? Discussion Points: Students will probably recognize that, as is usually the case with protectionist measures, the subsidies Japan pays its wheat farmers benefit the farmers, but cost the average consumer in the form of higher wheat prices. In fact, in 2004, Japanese consumers covered $700 million in subsidies! The subsidies also limit imports of wheat, which negatively affects foreign wheat farmers. 2. Why does Japan continue to subsidize its wheat farmers when cheaper wheat is readily available in international markets? Discussion Points: Thanks to subsidies, wheat prices in Japan are between 80 and 120 percent higher than they are in world markets. In fact, if the subsidies were eliminated, Japanese wheat production would cease entirely. However, at least for now, because politicians count on the votes of the wheat farmers, there appears to be no plan to end the subsidies. Teaching Tip: To extend this discussion, consider discussing Japan’s role in the production of rice. For more on this, go to {http://www. businessweek. com/globalbiz/content/may2008/gb20080522_132137. htm? chan=search}, and {http://www. businessweek. com/globalbiz/content/may2008/gb20080522_132137_page_2. htm}. Import Quotas and Voluntary Export Restraints E) An import quota is a direct restriction on the quantity of some good that may be imported into a country. A tariff rate quota is a hybrid of a quota and a tariff where a lower tariff is applied to imports within the quota than to those over the quota. A voluntary export restraint is a quota on trade imposed by the exporting country, typically at the request of the importing country’s government. F) While import quotas and voluntary export restraints benefit domestic producers by limiting import competition, they raise the prices of imported goods. The extra profit that producers make when supply is artificially limited by an import quota is referred to as a quota rent. Local Content Requirements G) A local content requirement demands that some specific fraction of a good be produced domestically. As with import quotas, local content requirements benefit domestic producers, but consumer face higher prices. Administrative Policies H) Administrative trade polices are bureaucratic rules that are designed to make it difficult for imports to enter a country. The effect of these polices is to hurt consumers by denying access to possibly superior foreign products. Antidumping Policies I) Dumping is variously defined as selling goods in a foreign market below their costs of production, or as selling goods in a foreign market at below their â€Å"fair† market value. Dumping is viewed as a method by which firms unload excess production in foreign markets. Alternatively, some dumping may be the result of predatory behavior, with producers using substantial profits from their home markets to subsidize prices in a foreign market with a view to driving indigenous competitors out of that market. Once this has been achieved the predatory firm can raise prices and earn substantial profits. J) Antidumping polices (also known as countervailing duties) are policies designed to punish foreign firms that engage in dumping. The ultimate objective is to protect domestic producers from â€Å"unfair† foreign competition. Management Focus: U. S. Magnesium Seeks Protection Summary This feature explores the dumping charged levied by U. S. Magnesium against Chinese and Russian producers. According to U. S. Magnesium, the sole American producer of magnesium, Russian and Chinese producers were selling magnesium significantly below market value in an effort to drive U. S. Magnesium out of business. The company failed a complaint with the International Trade Commission (ITC) which ultimately ruled in favor of U. S. Magnesium. Suggested Discussion Questions 1. What is dumping? Were Chinese and Russian producers guilty of dumping? How did U. S. Magnesium justify its claims against Russian and Chinese producers? Discussion Points: Dumping is defined as selling goods in a foreign market below the cost of production, or below fair market value. In 2004, U. S. Magnesium claimed that China and Russia had been dumping magnesium in the United States. The company noted that in 2002 and 2003, magnesium imports rose, and prices fell. While the ITC ruled in favor of the American company, some students might question whether the fact that the Chinese could sell their product at low prices might simply reflect the country’s significantly lower wage rates. . What does the ITC’s ruling mean for American consumers of magnesium? In your opinion, was the ruling fair? Discussion Points: The ITC ruled in favor of U. S. Magnesium finding that indeed China and Russia had been dumping their product in the United States. Fines ranging from 50 to 140 percent on imports were imposed against China, and 19 to 22 percent on Russian com panies. Most students will note that while the ITC’s decision is a good one for U. S. Magnesium and its employees. for consumers, the ruling means magnesium prices that are significantly higher than those in world markets. Students will probably argue that this result is unfair, and should be revisited. Teaching Tip: U. S. Magnesium’s web site is available at {http://www. usmagnesium. com/}. THE CASE FOR GOVERNMENT INTERVENTION A) In general, there are two types of arguments for government intervention, political and economic. Political arguments for intervention are concerned with protecting the interests of certain groups within a nation (normally producers), often at the expense of other groups (normally consumers). Economic arguments for intervention are typically concerned with boosting the overall wealth of a nation (to the benefit of all, both producers and consumers). Political Arguments for Intervention B) Political arguments for government intervention cover a range of issues including protecting jobs, protecting industries deemed important for national security, retaliating against unfair foreign competition, protecting consumers from â€Å"dangerous† products, furthering the goals of foreign policy, and protecting the human rights of individuals in exporting countries. Protecting Jobs and Industries C) The most common political reason for trade restrictions is â€Å"protecting jobs and industries. † Usually this results from political pressures by unions or industries that are threatened by more efficient foreign producers, and have more political clout than the consumers who will eventually pay the costs. National Security D) Protecting industries because they are important for national security is another argument for trade restrictions. The U. S. overnment protects industries like steel, aerospace, and electronics, on the basis of this argument, and has made special arrangements to protect the semiconductor industry. Lecture Note: In the United States, the Bureau of Export Administration enhances the nation's security and its economic prosperity by controlling exports for national security, foreign security, foreign policy, and short supply reasons. To learn more, go to {http://www. bis. doc. gov/about/index. htm}, click on Policies and R egulations and then on Export Administration Regulations. . Retaliation E) Government intervention in trade can be used as part of a â€Å"get tough† policy to open foreign markets. By taking, or threatening to take, specific actions, other countries may remove trade barriers. But when threatened governments do not back down, tensions can escalate and new trade barriers may be enacted. Lecture Note: The trading relationship between China and the United States is an ongoing topic of discussion for many. To expand the discussion on the role of government and retaliatory trade measures, consider {http://www. businessweek. om/globalbiz/content/may2008/gb20080528_845850. htm? chan=search} Protecting Consumers F) Consumer protection can also be an argument for restricting imports. The Country Focus below suggests that the European Union’s concern over beef was, in part, due to an interest in protecting consumers. Since different countries do have different health and safety standards, what may be acceptable in one country may be unacc eptable in others. Furthering Foreign Policy Objectives G) On occasion, governments will use trade policy to support their foreign policy objectives. One aspect of this is to grant preferential trade terms to countries that a government wants to build strong relations with. Trade policy has also been used several times as an instrument for pressuring punishing â€Å"rogue states† that do not abide by international laws or norms. In recent years the United States has imposed trade restrictions against Libya, Iran, Iraq, North Korea, Cuba, and other countries where governments were pursuing policies that were not viewed favorably by the U. S. government. A serious problem with using trade as an instrument of foreign policy is that other countries can undermine any unilateral trade sanctions. The U. S. Congress has passed two acts, the Helms-Burton Act and the D’Amato Act, in an effort to protect American companies from such actions. Protecting Human Rights H) Concern over human rights in other countries plays an important role in foreign policy. Governments sometimes use trade policy to improve the human rights policies of trading partners. Governments also use trade policies to put pressure on governments to make other changes. Unless a large number of countries choose to take such action, however, it is unlikely to prove successful. Some critics have argued that the best way to change the internal human rights of a country is to engage it in international trade. The decision to grant China most favored nation status was based on this philosophy. Country Focus: Trade in Hormone-Treated Beef Summary This feature describes the trade battle between the United States and the European Union over beef from cattle that have been given growth hormones. It outlines the basic issues that led to the dispute, and shows how the World Trade Organization has treated the case. Suggested Discussion Questions 1. Why is the European Union so concerned about beef from cattle that have been given growth hormones? Discussion Points: Some students may argue that the European Union’s ban on growth hormones in cattle was little more than a thinly veiled form of protectionism. Australia, New Zealand, and Canada, which also use the hormones in their cattle industry, were also affected by the ban. The European Union claimed that it was merely protecting the health of its citizens, however studies showed that the hormones posed no health issues for people. 2. Why did the WTO rule against the European Union? Discussion Points: The World Trade Organization ruled against the European Union stating that the European Union’s ban on imported hormone treated beef had no scientific justification. Even so, the European Union refused to lift the ban, which had strong public support, and in the end, the European Union was assessed punitive tariffs. The European Union held on to its principles though, and as of 2008, continued to maintain its restrictions on hormone treated beef despite the resulting punitive tariffs. Teaching Tip: The WTO maintains a site for students. Go to {www. wto. org} and click on the students icon to search the site, research countries, and even see a list of internships that are available at the WTO. Economic Arguments for Intervention I) Economic arguments for intervention include the infant industry argument and strategic trade policy. The Infant Industry Argument J) The infant industry argument suggests that an industry should be protected until it can develop and be viable and competitive internationally. Unless an industry is allowed to develop and achieve minimal economies of scale, foreign competitors may undercut prices and prevent a domestic industry from developing. The infant industry argument has been accepted as a justification for temporary trade restrictions under the WTO. K) A problem with the infant industry argument is determining when an industry â€Å"grows up. † Some industries that are just plain inefficient and uncompetitive have argued they are still infants after 50 years. The other problem is that given the existence of global capital markets, if the country has the potential to develop a viable competitive position its firms should be capable of raising the necessary funds without additional support from the government. Strategic Trade Policy L) Strategic trade policy suggests that in cases where there may be important first mover advantages, governments can help firms from their countries attain these advantages. Strategic trade policy also suggests that governments can help firms overcome barriers to entry into industries where foreign firms have an initial advantage. THE REVISED CASE FOR FREE TRADE A) While strategic trade policy identifies conditions where restrictions on trade may provide economic benefits, there are two problems that may make restrictions inappropriate: retaliation and politics. Retaliation and Trade War B) Krugman argues that strategic trade policies aimed at establishing domestic firms in a dominant position in a global industry are beggar-thy-neighbor policies that boost national income at the expense of other countries. A country that attempts to use such policies will probably provoke retaliation. Domestic Politics C) Governments do not always act in the national interest when they intervene in the economy. Instead special interest groups may influence governments. Thus, a further reason for not embracing strategic trade policy, according to Krugman, is that such a policy is almost certain to be captured by special interest groups within an economy, who will distort it to their own ends. DEVELOPMENT OF THE GLOBAL TRADING SYSTEM A) Many governments recognize the value of unrestricted free trade, but are hesitant to unilaterally lower their trade barriers in case other countries do not follow suit. Since World War II, and international trading framework has evolved that enables governments to negotiate a set of rules to govern cross-border trade and lower trade barriers. For the first 50 years, the framework was known as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). More recently, it has been known as the World Trade Organization (WTO). From Smith to the Great Depression B) Up until the Great Depression of the 1930s, most countries had some degree of protectionism. Great Britain, as a major trading nation, was one of the strongest supporters of free trade. C) Although the world was already in a depression, in 1930 the United States enacted the Smoot-Hawley Act, which created significant import tariffs on foreign goods. As other nations took similar steps and the depression deepened, world trade fell further. 1947-1979: GATT, Trade Liberalization, and Economic Growth D) After WWII, the U. S. and other nations realized the value of freer trade, and established the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). E) The approach of GATT (a multilateral agreement to liberalize trade) was to gradually eliminate barriers to trade. Over 100 countries became members of GATT, and worked together to further liberalize trade. Teaching Tip: A full review of GATT, containing an actual copy of the agreement, is available at {http://www. ciesin. org/TG/PI/TRADE/gatt. html}. 1980-1993: Protectionist Trends F) During the 1980s and early 1990s the world trading system as â€Å"managed† by GATT came under strain. First, Japan’s economic strength and huge trade surplus stressed what had been more equal trading patterns, and Japan’s perceived protectionist (neo-mercantilist) policies created intense political pressures in other countries. Second, persistent trade deficits by the United States, the world’s largest economy, caused significant economic problems for some industries and political problems for the government. Third, many countries found that although limited by GATT from utilizing tariffs, there were many other more subtle forms of intervention that had the same effects and did not technically violate GATT (e. g. VERs). The Uruguay Round and the World Trade Organization G) Against the background of rising protectionist pressures, in 1986 GATT members embarked on their eighth round of negotiations to reduce tariffs (called the Uruguay Round). This was the most ambitious round to date. Services and Intellectual Property H) One goal was to expand beyond the regulation of manufactured goods and address trade issues related to services and intellectual property, and agriculture. The World Trade Organization Lecture Note: To see current issues at the WTO, go to {http://www. wto. org/} and click on â€Å"News. † I) When the WTO was established, its creators hoped the WTO’s enforcement mechanisms would make it a more effective policeman of the global trade rules than the GATT had been. The WTO encompassed GATT along with two sister organizations, the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). WTO: Experience to Date J) At the time of its establishment, the great hope was that the WTO might emerge as an effective advocate and facilitator of future trade deals, particularly in such areas as services. In general, the experience so far has been encouraging. WTO as Global Police K) So far, the WTO’s policing and enforcement mechanisms are having a positive effect. In general, countries have adopted WTO recommendations for trade disputes. Expanding Trade Agreements L) In 1997, 68 countries that account for more than 90 percent of world telecommunications revenues pledged to open their markets to foreign competition and to abide by common rules for fair competition in telecommunications. Similarly, 102 countries pledged to open to varying degrees their banking, securities, and insurance sectors to foreign competition. Like the telecommunications deal, the agreement covers not just cross-border trade, but also foreign direct investment. The WTO in Seattle: A Watershed? M) The 1999 meeting of the WTO in Seattle was important not only for what happened between the member countries, but also for what occurred outside the building. Inside, members failed to agree on how to work toward the reduction of barriers to cross-border trade in agricultural products and cross-border trade and investment in services. Outside, the WTO became a magnet for various groups protesting free trade. The Future: Unresolved Issues and the Doha Round N) Substantial work still remains to be done on the international trade front. Four issues on the current agenda of the WTO are the rise of anti-dumping policies, the high level of protectionism in agriculture, the lack of strong protection for intellectual property rights in many nations, and continued high tariffs on nonagricultural goods and services in many nations. Lecture Note: The European Union’s trade commissioner is urging nations to complete Doha round negotiations prior to the beginning of a new administration in the United States. Further details can be found at {http://www. businessweek. com/globalbiz/content/jan2008/gb20080128_519854. htm? chan=search}. Anti-Dumping Actions O) There has been a proliferation of antidumping actions in recent years, perhaps because of the rather vague definition of what constitutes dumping. The WTO is encouraging members to strengthen the regulations governing the imposition of antidumping duties. Protectionism in Agriculture P) The WTO is concerned with the high level of tariffs and subsidies in the agricultural sector of many economies. However, the advanced countries of the world defend the current system because they want to protect their producers from lower-cost producers from developing nations. Protecting Intellectual Property Q) The agreement to protect intellectual property (TRIPS) obliges WTO members to grant and enforce patents lasting at least 20 years and copyrights lasting 50 years. The basis for this agreement was a strong belief among signatory nations that the protection of intellectual property rights is an essential element of the international trading system. Market Access for Nonagricultural Goods and Services R) The WTO would like to bring down tariff rates on nonagricultural goods and services, and reduce the scope for the selective use of high tariff rates. The hope is that at some point, rates would move to zero. Country Focus: Estimating the Gains from Trade for America Summary This feature explores the results of a study by the Institute for International Economics. The study, which estimated the gains to the U. S. economy from free trade, found that the United States’ GDP was more than 7 percent higher as a result of reductions in trade barriers than it would have been if the barriers remained. The study also estimated that if tariffs were reduced to zero, significant gains would still result. Suggested Discussion Questions 1. What does the Institute for International Economics suggest about the benefits of free trade? Discussion Points: The Institute for International Economics found that thanks to reductions in trade restrictions, the United States’ GDP was up. The Institute also estimated that even greater gains in the country’s GDP would occur if protectionism was eliminated all together. Students should recognize that these findings follow the principles of Adam Smith and David Ricardo and suggest that free trade is beneficial. 2. According to the Institute for International Economics study, a move oward free trade would cause disruption in employment. Is it still worth pursuing free trade if it means that some people lose their jobs? Discussion Points: This question should prompt a strong debate among students. Some students will probably suggest that the costs in terms of lost wages and benefits associated with free trade outweigh the benefits that would be gained. Other students howev er, will probably argue that since protectionism typically benefits only a few at the expense of others, while free trade generates greater economic growth and higher wages, a free trade policy should be followed. Teaching Tip: The Web site for Institute for International Economics is available at {http://www. iie. com/}. A New Round of Talks: Doha R) In late 2001, the WTO launched a new round of talks at Doha, Qatar. The agenda includes cutting tariffs on industrial goods and services, phasing out subsidies to agricultural producers, reducing barriers to cross-border investment, and limiting the use of anti-dumping laws. FOCUS ON MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS A) What does all of this mean for business? Managers need to consider how trade barriers impact firm strategy, and what role they can play in promoting free trade or trade barriers. Trade Barriers and Firm Strategy B) Trade barriers are a constraint upon a firm’s ability to disperse its productive activities. First, trade barriers raise the cost of exporting products to a country. Second, voluntary export restraints (VERs) may limit a firm’s ability to serve a country from locations outside that country. Third, to conform to local content requirements, a firm may have to locate more production activities in a given market than it would otherwise. All f the above effects are likely to raise the firm’s costs above the level that could be achieved in a world without trade barriers. In addition, the threat of antidumping action could limit the ability of a firm to use aggressive pricing as a way to gain market share. Policy Implications C) In general, international firms have an incentive to lobby for free tra de, and keep protectionist pressures from causing them to have to change strategies. While there may be short-term benefits to having governmental protection in some situations, in the long run these can backfire and other governments can retaliate. Critical Thinking and Discussion Questions 1. Do you think the U. S. government should consider human rights when granting preferential trading rights to countries? What are the arguments for and against taking such a position? Answer: China is frequently cited as a violator of human rights, and can form the basis for a discussion of this question. While the answer to the first question clearly is a matter of personal opinion, in stating their opinions, students should consider the following points. Trade with the U. S. is very important to China, as China views the U. S. as an important market. The U. S. is also an important source of certain products. Thus, the U. S. has some leverage with trade when trying to influence China’s human rights policies. For this policy to have much effect, however, other nations important to China must adopt similar policies. Otherwise China will simply choose to work with other countries, and U. S. consumers and producers may be more negatively impact than the Chinese. Another concern with tying MFN status to human rights is that denying MFN may make the human rights situation worse rather than better. By engaging in trade, the income levels in China will increase, and with greater wealth the people will be able to demand and receive better treatment. 2. Whose interests should be the paramount concern of government trade policy – the interests of producers (businesses and their employees) or those of consumers? Answer: The long run interests of consumers should be the primary concern of governments. Unfortunately consumers, each of whom may be negatively impacted by only a few dollars, are less motivated and effective lobbyists than a few producers that have a great deal at stake. While in some instances it could be argued that domestic consumers will be better off if world-class domestic producers are nurtured and allowed to gain first mover advantages in international markets, it is doubtful that the government will be better than international capital markets at â€Å"picking winners†, and will more likely pick the firms with the greatest political clout. While employees may well lose jobs if there are more efficient foreign competitors, some would argue that this is just the nature of competition, and that the role of government should be to help these employees get jobs where they can be efficiently employed rather than to protect them from reality in inefficient firms. 3. Given the arguments relating to the new trade theory and strategic trade policy, what kind of trade policy should business be pressuring government to adopt? Answer: According to the textbook, businesses should urge governments to target technologies that may be important in the future and use subsidies to support development work aimed at commercializing those technologies. Government should provide export subsidies until the domestic firms have established first mover advantages in the world market. Government support may also be justified if it can help domestic firms overcome the first-mover advantages enjoyed by foreign competitors and emerge as viable competitors in the world market. In this case, a combination of home market protection and export-promoting subsidies may be called for. . You are an employee of an U. S. firm that produces personal computers in Thailand and then exports them to the U. S. and other countries for sale. The personal computers were originally produced in Thailand to take advantage of relatively low labor costs and a skilled workforce. Other possible locations considered at that time were Malaysia and Hong Kong. The U. S. government decides to impose punitive 100 percent ad valorem tariffs on imports of computers from Thailand to punish the country for administrative trade barriers that restrict U. S. exports to Thailand. How should your firm respond? What does this tell you about the use of targeted trade barriers? Answer: As long as the manufacturing requirements haven't changed significantly, looking at Malaysia or Hong Kong again for production would appear obvious. By the U. S. government introducing a specific ad valorem tariff on Thai computer imports, it would be easy to get around these by looking at other locations. Hence such targeted trade barriers can often be easily circumvented without having to locate production facilities in an expensive country like the U. S. 5. Reread the Management Focus feature on U. S. Magnesium Seeks Protection. Who gains most from the anti-dumping duties levied by the United States on imports of magnesium from China and Russia? Who are the losers? Are these duties in the best national interests of the United States? Answer: Most students will probably recognize that U. S. producers and their employees are the primary beneficiaries of the anti-dumping duties levied by the United States on Chinese and Russian magnesium imports. As a result of the duties, consumers in the United States will pay higher prices for magnesium-based products. Some students may suggest that by imposing the duties, the United States runs the risk of retaliatory measures from both China and Russia. Closing Case: Agricultural Subsidies Summary The closing case examines the effects of subsidies paid to U. S. cotton farmers. The United States currently pays about $5 billion to cotton farmers for a crop that is worth just $4 billion. The lower prices resulting from the subsides and the excess production they encourage, have had particularly devastating effects on cotton farmers in poor countries. Some estimates show, for example, that the subsidies and excess production in the United States has cost the African country of Benin more economically than it receives in aid from the United States. Discussion of this case can revolve around the following questions: QUESTION 1: Why do you think that the U. S. government pays subsidies to farmers? ANSWER 1: The United States initially began paying subsidies to farmers in the middle of the Great Depression. Many students will probably suggest that the subsidies are still being paid simply because they have been in place for so long. Other students however, may note the power of agricultural lobbyists and the fact that without the subsidies, U. S. farmers could not compete in world markets. This suggests that the government has some incentive to continue with its current policies. QUESTION 2: What is the impact of farm subsidies on the price of agricultural products in the United States, and on prices elsewhere? ANSWER 2: The subsidies paid to U. S. farmers currently run around $29 billion annually. They encourage farmers to produce more products than are needed, and in doing so depress global prices. Cotton subsidies for example, pushed the price of cotton to just $0. 5 in 2006, about half the 1995 price. For farmers in poor countries, the drop in prices has pushed income levels down over 20 percent. QUESTION 3: Who benefits from U. S. farm subsidies, who are the losers? ANSWER 3: Most students will recognize that the primary beneficiaries of the subsidies are farmers. As a result of the subsidies, consumers mus t pay more, and producers in other countries are faced with falling prices, and ultimately lower incomes. QUESTION 4: What would happen if the United States (and other countries) stopped paying subsidies to farmers to grow certain crops? Who would benefit, who would lose? ANSWER 4: If the United States stopped paying subsidies to farmers, consumers would initially see prices fall. Later however, as some farmers, without the support of the subsidies, went out of business, consumers would probably see prices rise to some degree as supply and demand moved together. Producers in other countries like Benin would benefit from increased demand and higher prices. Video Note: The iGlobe Agricultural Problems Lead to Farmer Suicides in India explores the effects of cotton subsidies on farmers in India. The iGlobe is a good complement to the Closing Case. Continuous Case Concept As automakers establish production operations in multiple countries around the world, and rely on suppliers from numerous countries, the question of tariffs and quotas becomes more important. In this chapter’s Continuous Case Concept, explore what happens if a country places a tariff or other trade barrier on imported cars. †¢ Ask students to consider, for example, how consumers would react if the U. S. charged a tariff on every car that is imported from Japan. What would be the likely reaction of Japanese automakers? What would American producers do? †¢ Next, ask students to consider whether such as tariff is â€Å"fair. Who really pays the tariff? Who benefits from the tariff? Who would benefit from free trade in automobiles and car parts? †¢ Finally, explore how efforts by both the United States and the European Union to increase the production of ethanol and bio-diesel (see Opening Case) could impact the auto industry. Honda is currently a market leader in the hybrid vehicle market, but is hampered by the lack of infrastructure to fully support the industry. In 2008, Toyota established a goal to sell 500,000 hybrid vehicles. This exercise works well after the notion of trade barriers has been introduced. It can also be used in a summary discussion of the chapter’s material or in conjunction with the Opening Case. globalEDGE Exercises Use the globalEDGE Resource Desk {http://globalEDGE. msu. edu/ResourceDesk/} to complete the following exercises. Exercise 1 Your company is considering exporting its pharmaceutical products to Japan, but management’s current knowledge of the country’s trade policies and barriers for this sector is limited. Conduct the appropriate level of research in a trade barriers database to identify any information on Japan’s current standards and technical requirements for pharmaceutical products. Prepare an executive summary of your findings. Answer: The quickest way to reach this information would be to search globalEDGE using the phrase â€Å"trade barriers database† at http://globaledge. msu. edu/ResourceDesk/. Once at the Market Access Database website, select â€Å"Trade Barriers Database. † On the search option â€Å"Select Country,† choose â€Å"Japan,† and on the search option â€Å"Select Sector,† choose â€Å"Pharmaceuticals. † A series of reports are listed from which those with more general titles will provide adequate insight for the exercise. Search Phrase: â€Å"Trade Barriers Database† Resource Name: Market Access Database Website: http://mkaccdb. eu. int/ globalEDGE Category: â€Å"Research: Multi-Country† Exercise 2 You work for a national chain of clothing stores that is considering importing textiles from India into the U. S. You want to determine whether the goods are subject to import quotas. Using information provided by the U. S. Customs and Border Protections, prepare a report highlighting the elements that determine whether a shipment is subject to this type of trade restriction. Answer: The U. S. Customs and Border Protections website hosted by the U. S. government offers considerable information on the details of importing or exporting into or out of the U. S. The information for the exercise can be reached by searching for the phrase â€Å"U. S. Customs and Border Protections† at http://globaledge. msu. edu/ResourceDesk/. This resource can also be found under the globalEDGE category â€Å"Research: Government Resources. † Once on the website, click on â€Å"Trade† and select â€Å"Textiles and Quotas† under â€Å"Trade Program Areas. The report, â€Å"Are my Goods Subject to Quotas? ,† is readily available. Search Phrase: â€Å"U. S. Customs and Border Protections† Resource Name: United States: U. S. Customs and Border Protections Website: http://www. cbp. gov/ globalEDGE Category: â€Å"Research: Government Resources† Additional Readings and Sources of Information Economists Rethink Free Trade http://www. businessweek. com/magazine/content/08_06/b4070032762393. htm? chan=search Brazil Urges EU to Scrap Biofuel Tariffs http://www. businessweek. com/globalbiz/content/jul2007/gb2007076_483689. htm? chan=search